domingo, 7 de dezembro de 2008

Y DNA haplotypes and frequencies. The Portuguese-Brazilian J1b case

How can we find if a haplotype is considered as “established” or “outsider” in a given population?
It’s a question of frequency, perhaps. If a haplotype with a recognized genetic motif is present in any reliable sample of the population then we can infer that the haplotype is well distributed homogeneously in the population in a certain frequency. Even small frequencies of the order of 0,1 % can be detected and recognized in the case of big samples (<500). My case study is the frequency of the rare, but clearly visible J1b M365+ haplotypes in the Brazilian and Portuguese population. This genetic signature can be easily identified with the DYS19=15, DYS=390=22, DYS393=13 and a J1 signal like 458.2 or 388=16 what is a most probable way to capture a J1b haplotype.
In every big Portuguese and Brazilian databases (FTDNA, YHRD, SMGF) I can find the mentioned J1b motif provisory named as the “J1b Alan Modal Haplotype” in the Portuguese and Brazilian DNA stock. The frequency of the Portuguese J1b STR/SNP in the Portuguese population is estimated in between 0,2-0,8% of the total. The Portuguese Y DNA contribution to the Brazilian population has been estimated in circa de 40% (Sérgio Pena: 2000) what means 5 millions of Portuguese Y DNA in Portugal and 40 millions in Brazil. A haplotype will be considered as an established haplotype in a population if it’s found in a regular frequency in a constant and homogeneous participation in any big sample of this population. That’s the case of the J1b haplotype.
The article “Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosome STRs in Brazilians”, Pereira et al, Forensic Science International 171 (2007) 226–236, lists 481 Brazilian haplotypes and there’s one identified as J1b, the number HP 406 with the “Alan Modal Haplotype”: DYS19=15, DYS=390=22, DYS393=13, the 458.2 and the rare DYS385I/II 12-20. So, just like the FTDNA, YHRD, SMGF databases, this article also keeps the regular statistical frequency of 0,2% of the Brazilian J1b haplotype.
The J1b haplotype participation in the Brazilian and Portuguese population must be related to its participation since the formation of the original stock of the Portuguese population during the “ethnogenesis age” of the creation of this distinct population organized around the Minho and Douro rivers 1500 years ago (Hispano-Romans, Suebis, Alans coalescence in the Minho-Coimbra area). That’s the same chronology of the formation of the Portuguese language as a distinct and organized language. The consequence of a distinct community organized as a distinct society with a specific language led to the creation of hierarchies, social stratifications and finally led to the creation of the independent Portuguese National State around the 12th century as a response to the Moor Almoravid and Almohad onslaught of the 11th century. In the last thousand years the Portuguese population had gone through two bottlenecks, one around the year 1000 AD with the Moor pressure and the other in the Thirty Years War (1630-1654) with the Castilian pressure in Iberia and the Dutch pressure in Brazil, in both cases the threats of annihilation of the autonomy and existence of this population in Europe and in America led to a situation of total war and a subsequent victory with a new demographic boom of the Portuguese-Brazilian population in new conquered territories. The original male population of the Entre Douro e Minho with a population of perhaps 30.000 Y DNA around the year 1000 AD has multiplied to a half a million in 1500 and to 45 millions nowadays. The Minho little population with few resources has been able to conquer Portugal and then conquer one of the world big territories in Brazil to become one of the world’s “Monster Country”. So the calculated total number of J1b’s haplotypes in the Portuguese-Brazilian population (from 0,2 to 0,8%) of the total population (45 millions) could be between 90.000 and 360.000. A single male, the J1b Western Iberian Genearch perhaps coming in the Alan invasion, was the founder of this lineage. Would it be possible to guess any kind of social status of his position after a thousand of years ? That’s a difficult question but somehow this Eastern Anatolian/Caucasian/Caspian “exotic” Y DNA could survive and thrive in a completely different place in the westernmost part of Western Europe, in times of war and destruction, in a very distant population very far way from the place of the original source and original habitat of this SNP and in a completely different hostile haplogroup environment. What I can say is that most probably this haplotype had entered the Portuguese stock before or just at the exact foundational moment of the ethnogenesis of the Portuguese population because it’s well rooted in some deep rural traditional places of the Minho and it is very well homogeneously distributed with a regular frequency in every big sample of the Portuguese and Brazilian population. The J1b haplotype was not observed in the recent article “The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula”. No Hispanic populations of Castilian, Catalan, Basque languages of Iberia and no Sephardic, Jew, Moor, Arab or North African population has presented this haplotype. The J1b M365+ is a Western Iberian-Portuguese-Brazilian phenomenon.

The American Journal of Human Genetics 04 December 2008
The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula
Supplemental Data for M. Adams et al.

Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosome STRs in Brazilians .
Forensic Science International , Volume 171 , Issue 2 - 3 , Pages 226 - 236
R . Pereira , E . Monteiro , G . Hirschfeld , A . Wang , D . Grattapaglia
List of J1b haplotypes and candidates with the new Brazilian HP406 haplotype:
Ricardo Costa de Oliveira

Legends of the nomadic Iranian speaking tribes in Eurasia

- England and Japan

C. Scott Littleton, Occidental College, Los Angeles
Yarnato-takeru: An "Arthurian" Hero in Japanese Tradition

"The curious similarities between the legendary Japanese hero Yamato-takeru and King Arthur do not appear to be merely fortuitous. We now know that between the second and the fifth centuries A.D. the folklore of both Japan and Western Europe was influenced-both directly and indirectly - by that of several nomadic Northeast Iranian speaking tribes (Sarmatians, Alans, etc.). These tribes originated in the steppes of what is today southern Russia and the Ukraine. The last surviving Northeast Iranian speakers,the Ossetians of the north-central Caucasus, preserve a corpus of legends about a hero called Batraz who closely resembles both Yamato-takeru and Arthur. It is suggested that Yamato-takeru, Arthur, and Batraz derive from a common Northeast Iranian prototype".

Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 54, 1995: 259-274


Manuscript of Fray Bernardo de Braga (?-1605) “Sobre a precedência do reino de Portugal, ao reino de Nápoles”
The first king of Lusitania was Respendial (Rapantiano, Rapantianus) and the second was Ataces (Atacces, Adax) Lusitania rex. One of the first kings in Western Europe after the Roman Empire, the idea of a warrior king as an Eastern Iranian cultural import in the Western Atlantic façade ?
« Rapantianus Lusitaniam a Romanis capessit , fuit « Alanus quidem et Lusitania rex, sed breviter a suis « occisus successit Atacius, qui ultra Lusitaniam « suum Regnum dilatavit,... «
“Resplamdiano Alanorun Regi defuncto successit Atax”.
Coimbra was the capital of the Alan Kingdom of Lusitania and the King Ataces was killed in battle against the Visigoths. 1156 years later another Portuguese King, successor of the Alan Kings from Lusitania, was killed again in battle, Dom Sebastião killed in action in Alcacer Quibir, 4 of august of 1578, in North Africa. D. Sebastião took the sword of Afonso Henriques, the first Portuguese King from the Santa Cruz Monastery, in Coimbra.

The kings as warrior knights, the symbolic swords and the messianic figure of the lost kings are common elements.
In some cases DNA and legends can travel together and they can make difference far away from the point of origin. Kings had knights and troops with them, perhaps some remnant elements of this DNA “gesta” can be found nowadays in some parts of Eurasia. Rare Exotic Y DNA matching haplotypes in the Caucasus, Iran and in Portugal can be very good candidates for this kind of gesta in the Portuguese case.