sábado, 4 de dezembro de 2010

Via Alanica

New Iranian haplotypes in the article “Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon”, Marc Haber et al.

324 Iranian haplotypes, 25 J1 and 2(324/2 = 0,61% - I171 and I174) have the rare J1 motif 19=15, 390=22, 393=13, 385a=12, DYS458.2) usually associated to J1b M365+
No Lebanese haplotype was found with the described modal.
The Iranian J1’s are mainly L136 negative and P58 negative, while the Levantine, Arabian and the North African haplotypes are mostly L136+ and P58+, so a big difference in terms of two big J1 SNPs of Northern/Southern difference.

So the possible general distribution of this rare J1 genetic signature is:
Y Search code

I171- 17 markers - WKQUE
I174 – 19 markers - 5F9HU
SMGF Iran (260/4 = 1,5%)
SMGF – 42 - Iraniano - Iran - Tehran SMGF – FSVWG
SMGF – 42 - Shahroud, Semnan, Iran - 9MS3E
SMGF - 42 - Abadeh Fars, Iran - XVMBC
SMGF – 38 - Astane - Iraniano SMGF –2Y5SH
YHRD (47/1) – Gilaki - Iran
YHRD – 17 - Rasht – Gilaki – Iran - QFBX9

Haplótipo 168 - 9 – Turkey – YTHMV - J1b SNP tested
IGenea – 53 - Deregolic - Turkey - NR8VC - J1b SNP tested

FTDNA – 12 - Cuylaerts - Turnhout, Belgium –- E9YYJ - J1b SNP tested

FTDNA – 12 - Laborde - 6HCM6. From a region close to the French Pyrenees with a town named Alan and memorials like the Hourquette d'Alans ?.

FTDNA – 67 - Dominguez Castro, Ourense, Galicia, Spain – PRJ9T - J1b SNP tested
YHRD – Caceres, Extremadura – Spain – 22RY7
Spanish Empire
YHRD – Guadalajara, Mexico - 49S86

Haplótipo 389 (244/1) - 15 - Northern Portugal - 38EUZ
FTDNA – 67 – Sardinha, Ilha de São Miguel, Azores - K3SMV - J1b SNP tested
SMGF – 32 - Ferrere (Ferreira) – Migrant to Reunion Island - X6P7G
Portuguese Empire - Brazil
FTDNA – 67 - Oliveira – Brazil – 2CUZQ - J1b SNP tested
HP 406 – (481/1) – 17 – Brazil - CDYQR
YHRD – (247/1) – 10 – Alagoas - MFS67
SMGF Brazil (632/2 = 0,3%)
SMGF – 28 - Cordeiro de Melo - Santana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul - R7SHE
SMGF – 32 – Gonçalves - Imaruí, Santa Catarina - 6WQMH

Shared mini-haplotype
YHRD – 9 – mini-haplotype, matching three individuals from the Azores, Rio de Janeiro and Turkey - 6URZK

The connection is the possible Via Alanica. J1b was discovered in Eastern Anatolia and in Georgia but Ancient Iran was a possible source too. There’s a visible trail connecting Northern Iran with Western Iberia. The rare J1 motif (19=15, 390=22, 393=13, 385a=12, 458,2) usually associated to J1b M365+ is found at small but regular rates only in Iran and in Portugal, the two hotspots for this genetic signature, the hypothetic Western Alan J1b genetic signature. Isolated cases (like in Belgium and France) can be found inbetween the two hotspots of what was known as the Via Alanica. The Alans had several haplotypes and genetic genealogy has probably discovered one of them here.

The haplotypes

sexta-feira, 26 de novembro de 2010

Bandeirantes & Indian Ancestors

Another view from the first American experience in the 1500's
1 - The Amerindian genetic mark is a central element in the first and principal families of the American Continent.
2 - The Amerindian genetic mark represents the continuation of the old Amerindian structures of power and the formation of the main connections of antiquity in the land as a high status symbol of the new American nobility or American gentry created in the New World.
3 - Tribal daughters, named and documented real Amerindian "princesses", were the key element, the zero degree point of the American conventional genealogy. The conquerors, founders and the first colonists in the making of America in the 1500's and 1600's are listed, narrated and described in the oldest written genealogies.
4 - The demographic explosion of the first American settlers. The territorial expansion and the big mass European migration. The Amerindian genetic mark became a genetic souvenir and a heritage. As the article said: "We don't look Indian by any means, but to feel that, you get a sense of how varied and rich your culture can be..."
5 - The Europeization of the American population. The first mixed American Elite related to tribal chiefs and the first navigators and discoverers is the social, economic, ethnic, political, cultural and moral basis of the new ruling class. The first families and the land are one.
6 - It's extremely rare to keep the first Colonial founder Amerindian mark in the subsequent Europeization of the continent. The Europeization of the entire population as in parts of North America, Southern Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay or the Europeization of the elites as in some parts like Rio de Janeiro. After five centuries of European migration to America only some endogamic social groups can keep and preserve a small amount of the first Colonial Amerindian autosomal DNA (detected as 1-4% in labs like 23andMe) or keep Amerindian mtDNA structured from long matrilocal lineages of the first American historical power elites. That's the original Amerindian mtDNA coming from the Casa Grande, the matrons, the matriarchs, the old American dames with very ancient and deep roots in the land and established conventional genealogies in the elites.
7 - The colonization of Brazil and the creation of a new authentic Brazilian warrior nobility/elite of mixed origins, the Bandeirantes from São Paulo de Piratininga, where the pre-Columbian tribal Tupi chief Tibiriçá is buried under the crypt of the oldest and most important temple of the city of São Paulo, the first family and the first genealogy of Salvador da Bahia, os Caramurús and the mixed family of the Albuquerque Maranhão, from Pernambuco. All had extreme high status ranking in the Portuguese Empire and they were the Comandos of the military expansion of Brazil in wars against the Spanish, French and Dutch Empires in the incessant South American wars of the 1500's, 1600's and 1700's. Perhaps Pocahontas in Virginia, North America, could have a similar history to the raising of the Brazilian Colonial elite. In Mexico, Quebec, Paraguay and in other parts similar social Euro-American elites had been created with more or less success in the creation of new ethno-national States in the American continent.
8 - In the early 1800's the slaver aristocratic project of the Ancient Regime survived only in Brazil, in the Southern United States and in some remanescent islands of the Spanish Empire like Cuba and Puerto Rico. In the 19th century only Brazil kept the African traffic until 1850 and the slavery until 1888. After the ancient power of Imperial Rome, Imperial Brazil was the world's biggest slaveholder society ruled by a new local nobility and a new population created with big Amerindian and African populational stocks.
9 - Anyway the small Amerindian component is a must to a classical Brazilian genealogy coming from the 1500's, 1600's, o "Sainete Brasílico" is a comprobatory document for the Brazilian old stock "Quinhentão".

Sometimes the Brazilian Amerindian mtDNA could get access to the top Nobility in Portugal too. The Marquês de Pombal, an 18th century Portuguese powerful statesman had a Brazilian Amerindian mtDNA from the early 1500's (Genealogias Clássicas). He was related to Pernambuco's Albuquerque de Maranhão family, a top mixed family from the first Brazilian nobility, Conquistadores do Maranhão. The Marquis of Pombal abolished the differences between Old Christians and New Christians and he abolished or diminished the Amerindian slavery in Brazil and recognized the Indians as subjects of the Empire

Rarity and nobility in the Old and New World ?

There’s a possible and necessary connection between rarity and nobility in Western Europe. If the genesis of the European historical nobility is related to ethnic war in the fall of the Western Roman Empire, as certain documentation or imaginary prescribes, so a deep history of the European social stratification would be revealed in terms of distinct STR-SNPs. Or the European social structure is completely randomic in terms of the STR-SNP distribution or there’s a historical structure of political differentiation in the formation of the European demographics, perhaps not randomic but not as rigid as the DNA differentiation of the Indian castes. The supposed DNA of Louis XVI is a showcase under investigation. If the conventional genealogies of the royalty were correct (what is doubtful in several cases), the relative rarity of the “royal” lineage is a documented fact. The political action of elites can shape ethnic, national, linguistic, cultural or religious identities. We can assess the demographic impact in Europe and in America of “New” European groups, with some distinct genetic profiles, like the Jews and Roma (Gypsies) with very interesting histories. Conventional Genealogy Degree Zero is a good starting point. What is narrated of the origins of the first nobility ? In Portugal the first documented genealogy, O Livro Velho das Linhagens, described the principal family of the Sousãos in the heart of the Minho, coming from Uffo Belfager (most probably an old Suebi name), a man that lived in the 800’s. Another decisive lineage was the Bragançãos, from the strategic territory of Bragança. The founder was D. Alam, the kidnapper of an Armenian Princess. The legends and references are clearly situated in the stronghold of Bragança as a supposed Alanic lordship that enabled the creation of the Kingdom of Portugal, the first ethno-national State in Europe with a continuous history. language and political frontier. Brazil has been the most aristocratic society in the New World, a new territory and a new frontier where the Ancien Regime planted deep roots. Brazil created a new local nobility and reproduced the old social structures. The Brazilian D. Pedro II would had the same Y DNA of Louis XVI. Not only the top-top European pedigrees have been in Brazil, but we can try to recognize and detect the DNA impact of the outsiders of the Roman Empire, groups like the Jewish and Roma contributions and especially other “exotic” groups arriving in Iberia as invaders and conquerors. The old Brazilian Colonial Elite had a unique genetic profile in the world, mostly composed by Portuguese and other European (Southern and Northern) contributions with small and distant, but regular Amerindian and African little segments. No other American Colonial Elite has had exactly the same genetic profile, the same history, the same proportions, the same expansion and the same number. It’s a Brazilian demography, the product of a specific aristocratic society of the Ancien Regime. The Brazilian mtDNA is the closest thing to a “racial democracy” in the world. The assimetry of the Brazilian mtDNA with the Brazilian Y DNA, the creator of the Brazilian state-society in terms of the preservation of the same language, religion, political institutions, army and the responsibility of the conquest and colonization of the big Brazilian territory. Mestiçagem is mainstream in Brazil and that’s a positive value. The Suebi and Alans were an integrant part in the formation of the Portuguese-Brazilian people. A region without diversity as in the case of a big concentration of R1b only, would not be able to create a proper independent or autonomous nobility and those places would not be able to keep and create a proper ethno-national State (and later to build up an own Empire) with it’s own institutions and language, what happened in parts of the Western Atlantic high % R1b façade, in places and regions where the R1b native peasantry were almost total without an internalised outside warrior nobility.
The Portuguese Suebi DNA will match some Northern European regions. The Portuguese Alan DNA would be exceptionally rare.
Why Y DNA J1b and others eventually can be related to the Alans in the Portuguese-Brazilian male stock ?
1 – Extreme rare haplogroup and extreme rare haplotypes. Almost total isolation in Western Europe. An exotic Caucasian-Caspian Northern Middle Eastern island in a sea of Western Atlantic Iberian R1b P-3122 – The source area was located in the Caucasus, Eastern Anatolia, Armenia, Caspian Sea. They came far from the East to the extreme West without a connection with Jews (Judaism) or Arabs (Islamism), both also integrated and incorporated in the Portuguese and Brazilian populations in different waves.3 – No close matches outside of the ethnic group. Outside the Portuguese-Brazilian haplotypes, the closest combination is found only within certain Northern Iranian populations4 – The temporal distance of the STR genetic distances separating the Portuguese-Brazilian cases and the Iranians is estimated between 1600-2000 years5 - Relative reproductive success and verifiable regular frequencies in any population of Portuguese-Brazilian origin at regular rates.
6 – Status quo and longue durée of the exotic DNA ? Yes or no ?

sábado, 28 de agosto de 2010

23andMe. My Son

2 Oliveira - Son
Y DNA J1b - Milhazes, Barcelos, Portugal. 300 years in Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil
mtDNA N1b1 -Kreshnik, Lublin, Poland. Catholic. Three generations in Curitiba
Brazilian Ancestry Painting

23andMe. My Father

1 Oliveira - Father
Y DNA J1b - Milhazes, Barcelos, Portugal. 300 years in Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil
mtDNA C1c - Probably Guarani, Paranaguá, Litoral do Paraná
Brazilian Ancestry Painting

sábado, 24 de julho de 2010

New 23andMe Ancestry Finder

Another fantastic tool, the New 23andMe Ancestry Finder

My results (as released in july of 2010):

Default - starting point
Portugal : 0,4%

All included:

United States 4.3%–8.2%
Portugal 0.6%–1.1%
United Kingdom 0.4%–1.0%
Ireland 0.4%–0.8%
Spain - 0.4%–0.7%
Colombia 0.7%
Poland 0.3%–1.0%
Hungary 0.2%–0.3%
South Africa 0.2%
Netherlands 0.2%
Romania 0.1%–0.3%
Brazil 0.1%–0.3%
Ukraine 0.0%–0.7%
Latvia 0.0%–0.7%
Russia 0.0%–0.5%
Lithuania 0.0%–0.4%
Germany 0.0%-0.4%
Switzerland 0.0%–0.3%
Panama 0.0%-0.3%
Italy 0.0%-0.3%
Indonesia 0.0%-0.3%
France 0.0%-0.3%
Argentina 0.0%-0.3%
Venezuela 0.0%–0.2%
Norway 0.0%-0.2%
Canada 0.0%–0.2%
Peru 0.0%–0.1%
Denmark 0.0%-0.1%
Belarus 0.0%–0.1%
Uruguay 0.0%–0.0%
Ecuador 0.0%–0.0%

11,6cM - 4 United States chr10
9,4cM – 4 United States chr13
9,2cM - 2 Unknown, 2 United States chr14
8,4cM – 1 Argentina, 1 United States, 2 Unknown chr6
8,3cM - 4 Portugal chr21
8,3cM – 1 Portugal, 3 United States chr3
8,3cM – 2 Germany, 1 France, 1 United Kingdom chr22
8,3cM – 2 United States, 2 Canada chr13
7,9cM – 4 Portugal chr1
7,4cM – 4 Ireland chr13
7,1cM – 1 United States, 1Denmark, 2 Unknown chr22
7,0cM – 1 Venezuela, France, 2 Spain chr18
6,9cM – 1 Ireland, 2 Unknown, 1 United States chr5
6,8cM – 4 United States chr2
6,8cM – 2 Lithuania, 1 Russia, 1 Lithuania chr7
6,7cM – 1 Uruguay, 3 Unknown chr21
6,7cM - 4 Romenia chr11
6,6cM - 4 Portugal chr4
6,6cM – 2 United States, Indonesia, Switzerland chr11
6,6cM - 2 Unknown, 2 Russia chr19
6,4cM – 1 Panama, 3 Unknown chr20
6,3cM - 1 United States, 3 Unknown chr1
6,3cM – 1 Lithuania, 3 United States chr5
6,2cM – 4 Netherlands chr1
6,2cM – 4 United States chr20
6,1cM – 4 Portugal chr1
6,1cM – 4 Colombia chr3
6,1cM – 2 Germany, 2 Portugal chr20
6,1cM – 4 Spain chr1
5,7cM - 4 United States chr8
5,6cM – 1 United States, 1 Norway, 2 Italy
5.6cM – 2 Ecuador, 2 United Kingdm chr22
5,6cM – 2 United Kingdom, 2 United States chr8
5,6cM – 3 United States, 1 Unknown chr1
5,5cM – 2 United States, 1 United Kingdom, 1 United States, chr9
5,5cM – 4 South África chr11
5,5cM – 1 Russia, 3 Unknown chr2
5,4cM – 4 United States chr18
5,4cM – 1 United States, 3 Unknown chr22
5,4cM – 4 United States chr12
5,4cM – 4 Poland chr11
5,4cM – 1 Spain, 1 Unknown, 2 Spain chr11
5,3cM – 2 United States, 2 Unknown chr14
5,3cM – 1Unknown, United States, Ireland, United States chr8
5,3cM – 1 Brazil, 1 Unknown, 1 Peru, 1 Unknown chr2
5,2cM – 1 Latvia, 2 Poland, 1 Ukraine chr16
5,2cM – 2 Hungary, 2 United States chr11
5,2cM – 1United States, 1 Unknown, 2 United States chr9
5,2cM – 4 United States chr1
5,1cM – 4 Ireland chr13
5,1cM – 4 United States chr5
5,1cM – 4 Poland chr4
5,1cM – 1 United States, 1 Unknown, 2 United States chr3
5,1cM – 1 Unknown, 3 United States chr1
5,0cM – 4 United States, chr10
5,0cM - 2 Belarus, 1 United Kingdom, 1 Romania chr8
5,0cM – 4 United Kingdom chr2

5cM = 4 grandparents from the same country
Portugal 0.9%
Spain 0.4%
Ireland 0.4%
Poland 0.3%
United Kingdom 0.2%
Romania 0.2%
Netherlands 0.2%
Hungary 0.2%
Colombia 0.2%

Indicated segments declared to be of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

The Origin of the Brazilian Y DNA

The Origin of the Brazilian Y DNA
Alagoas, Brazil Y DNA (STR-SNP) at the YHRD release 34.

I’ve made a comparative analysis of the continental Portuguese Y DNA with the regional Brazilian/Alagoas one.


Analysis of Y chromosome SNPs in Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil (Dalmo de Azevedo:2009), 247 tested

Micro-Phylogeographic and Demographic History of Portuguese Male Lineages (Sandra Beleza:2006), 657 tested

Portugal / Alagoas, Brazil
E (xE3a, E3b1) 0.5% / E(xE1b1a-B ) M96 0.4%
E3a 0.2% / E1b1a M2 4.45%
E3b1 (xE3b1-c) 0.9% / E1b1b1(xE1b1b1a-c) M35 0.4%
E3b1a 4.1% / E1b1b1a M78 5.67%
E3b1b 5.6% / E1b1b1b M81 4.05%
E3b1c M123 1.2% / E1b1b1c1 M34 0.4%
F (xGIJK) 0.2% / #
G 5.5% / G M201 3.64%
I (xI1b2) 6.1% / I(xI2a2) M170 4.86%
I1b2 1.5% / I2a2 M26 1.62%
J (xJ1d,J2) 3.4% / J(xJ2) M304 6.07%
J2 7.0% / J2 M172 7.29%
K2 1.6% / T M70 4.05%
L 0.3% / #
R1a 2.0% / R1a1 M17 0.4%
R1b3 (xR1b3f) 57.7% / R1b1b2 M269 55.47%
R1b3f 2.2% / #
# - Q1a3a M3 0.81%
# - K(xL,P,T) M9 0.4%

The proportion of the Y DNA structure between the two populations (samples) is remarkable, almost a mirror. The differences can be found in the Amerindian Q and the African E1b1a in the Brazilian admixed population.

The proportions are curiously regular because my own J1b haplogroup/haplotype is usually found at 0.5% in any big sampled Portuguese stock tested, that’s the case here, one probable J1b (1 of 247) present in the YHRD/Alagoas samples. 19-15, 390-22, 393-13, 385-12~18, 458-18.2

Other contributions to the Alagoas’ Y DNA stock:

- The Amerindian local population, the Caetés, a Tupi group, antropophagus, man-eater, they ate the first Bishop in Brazil after a shipwreck, Dom Pero Fernandes Sardinha (Évora, 1496- Alagoas, 1556). The source of the surviving Q1a3a-M3

- The Dutch occupation of Alagoas, 1637-1646. The WIC Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie. After several battles and the final siege and defeat of the Dutch WIC Fort Maurice in 1645, thousands of soldiers and mercenaries from the Netherlands, France, Germany, Poland, England, Scotland and Jew traders (several Portuguese Sephardim and some Eastern European Ashkenazim, the first documented in Brazil) fought in Alagoas and were captured. The Inquisition freely released the Alagoas’ Ashkenazis in Europe because only baptized Catholics could be processed). After years of occupation and war some of that WIC DNA was incorporated in the local population ?

- The Quilombo dos Palmares, the biggest African community of escaped slaves in the New World. The fortified African citadel in the mountains of Alagoas resisted for almost a century until the final destruction in 1695. Another possible source of African DNA.

The Brazilian traditional colonial Y DNA is the Portuguese “age of sail” Y DNA and the modern Portuguese Y DNA is more related to the old “rural” Y DNA. I think a more or less homogeneous structure of the Portuguese Y DNA stock was already coalesced around the creation of the first Kingdom of Portugal by the year 1150. The moving frontiers in Western Iberia and in South America were the result of the action of a more or less homogeneous Y DNA set or a common pack of Y DNA conquering and colonizing new lands since then. May be a sort of an old diffused aristocratic-slaver cultural ethos or I don’t know what ? Definitely some of the old Alans, Suebi, Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Moors were still riding in new spaces with the Caravels and the Bandeirantes !

The Quest for Fatherhood

Genetic genealogy is rewriting the World History. The Brazilian slavery was the main reason of existence of Colonial Brazil. The growth of the Brazilian population is one of the biggest demographic world facts in the last hundred years. The Brazilian fertility rate created the last world population reaching the 200 millions people club. Brazil had a relatively small population in the world scale until the 1900’s. The main motor of the Brazilian populational expansion has been the Y DNA of the Medieval First Portuguese Kingdom. The Atlantic seafarers and continental conquerors of Brazil created a new population. Our old empire was the first national state to reach Sub-Saharan Africa connecting again Mankind after 60.000 years of separation. The new continent of America began to be colonized with a new population in 1500. In some Brazilian social groups we can find the perfect distribution of mtDNA in equal shares of a third Amerindian, a third European and a third African. Results are consistent with historical records of the directional mating between Portuguese males and Amerindian or African females. The Portuguese Empire only could do it to survive as a national state and national language with a big world empire. Just comparing Portugal with Scotland and Ireland or with the Basques or Catalans that could not escape the centripetal forces of England and Castille. The slavery and the organization of the Brazilian society can be compared with some posterior models. A comparison of the African DNA and the Black social role in Brazil can be compared with the experiences of the French in Haiti, the British in Dixie, the Boers in Africa and the Spaniards in Cuba. Brazil was by far the biggest importer of Africans to the New World (approx. 40% of the total of 10 millions).

Who are the Black Brazilians in terms of Y DNA?

The Y DNA. Number of declared Black tested people and proportion of European Y DNA:
120/60 – 50% . Source- BBC-Brasil site - Sérgio Pena

Genetic signatures of parental contribution in black and white populations in Brazil. Guerreiro-Junior.
Northeast – 89 - 34%
Southeast – 288 – 43%
South - 55 – 56%

Y-STR diversity and ethnic admixture in White and Mulatto Brazilian population samples. Luzitano Brandão Ferreira.

Mulattoes 50/46 – 93%

So the Brazilian Black and Mulatto population is in a good proportion an extension of the Medieval Portuguese Masculinity and adding the declared White Colonial population Brazil is the “center” of that Y DNA Manhood in genetic numbers. So we can understand a lot of things. I can write later.

Haplotypes and Empires

As I have written before, haplotypes are social facts. By a social fact, Emile Durkheim, one of the fathers of modern sociology, is referring to facts, concepts, relations, expectations that come not from individual realities, but that come from the social group which socializes and structures each of its members. Haplotypes are also political facts. The distribution of haplotypes in a population is a historical process related to social and political facts. How the class structure and the distribution of haplotypes in a society have been formed is a central question. The sociology of Karl Marx can be interesting in terms of the formation of the class structure of a society in economical, political and historical terms. The social, historical and political aspects of the distribution of haplotypes is a condition to understand the spatial distribution of haplotypes.

The world wide distribution of my haplotype can be an example. The small and extremely rare Y DNA J1b M365 was originally found and discovered in Eastern Anatolia and Georgia in 2004. As an “old” Anatolian SNP it has never been reported in South Eastern Europe or in the Balkans. So it seems that the the Turk expansion and the Ottoman Empire just bypassed (and eroded) J1b in that region. The same had happened before when the Mongols swept through Central and Eastern Anatolia. No J1b has never been found in the Levantine region and no J1b has been reported in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Also it seems that there’s absolutely no connection of J1b with Semites. The only private tester publicly reported as J1b in Eastern Turkey is a Zazaki speaker, a Northwestern Iranian language. I have discovered and reported the existence of two J1b clusters in Western Iberia, Portugal and in the Caspian shores of North Iran analyzing my own results from FTDNA and the SMGF, YHRD databases. The two clusters are connected by approximately 1500 years and they can easily be recognized at the Sorenson SMGF database with a quite distinct J1b root haplotype. In some centuries J1b could expand and develop a good demography in order to be a statistical phenomenon, a genetic and social fact, detected at the Portuguese stock population at regular rates close to +/- 0,5% in any collection of Portuguese haplotypes. So the original founder, the Genearch of the Portuguese speaking J1b was apparently a successfull survivor. In the last thousand years the Proto-Portuguese, mainly the Christian population from the Entre-Douro-e-Minho has passed from an almost exterminated Northwestern Iberian Christian “tribe” to being able to build the first world wide maritime Empire into a new thriving Ethno-National State with a new demographic explosion in Brazil. New rich genetic admixtures were made. In spite of the small databases at FTDNA, SMGF and several articles, we can infer from regular sampling that J1b is more present on the frontiers of the old Portuguese Empire than in Continental Portugal. At YHRD J1b is among the most common haplotypes in the Azorean sample. J1b can be found in the SMGF Southern Brazilian haplotypes and even in the tiny Reunion Island, in the Indian Ocean ! No J1b has ever been found in the important and well sampled Hispanic population from the United States, what means that J1b is almost non-existent in Mexico, Texas, California, Puerto Rico, for instance. In the case of the Azores and Colonial Brazil, the Portuguese conquest and colonization was mainly conducted by a kind of “fronteiro”, frontiersman, coming mostly from the Minho, Northern Portugal. The Portuguese frontier against Islam in Northern Iberia was transplanted to South America and to Brazil in a secular (existing or continuing through ages or centuries) process of expansion still raging in the Amazon. There’s probably an explanation to the fact that J1b is found thinly but regularly well spreaded (and well above the Portuguese European continental rates as given by the available data) in the old Portuguese world wide Empire and adjacent regions. The Atlantic was a gate to success because on the other shore of the Ocean everything was bigger and everybody could be richer in comparison with the source regions of the Colonials in Portugal. Perhaps the class position, the social status or the geographic location of some haplotypes in the early years of the formation of the Portuguese population was relevant. It was a movement within the same Empire, within the same religion, language and culture. The social, political and geographic place of J1b and several other different Portuguese haplotypes could be decisive as contributors in the making of the Luso-Brazilian frontier in the last thousand years, what can be a factor to explain the current distribution of this small clade in the world nowadays.

sábado, 3 de julho de 2010

Genealogy is just a Historical SNP trail

Genealogy is just a SNP trail

Let's compare the SNPs leading to J1b and R1b-P312 as july/2010

L15, L16
IJ P123, P124, P125, P126, P127, P129, P130
J 12f2a, 12f2.1, M304, P209, L60, L134
J1 M267, L255
J1b M365

IJK L15, L16
K M9, P128, P131, P132
P 92R7, M45, M74, N12, P27.1, P69, P207, P226, P228, P230, P235, P237, P239, P240, P243, P244, P281, P282, P283, P284, P295
R M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285
R M306
R1,P? (ISOGG: R1,P) M173, P231, P233, P234, P236, P238, P241, P242, P245, P286, P294
R1b M343
R1b1 P25_1, P25_2, P25_3
R1b1b P297
R1b1b1 M73
R1b1b2 M269, L265
R1b1b2a L23, L49
(ISOGG: R1b1b2a1) L51
R1b1b2a1 (ISOGG: R1b1b2a1a,R1b1b2a1a) P310, P311, L11, L52, L151
R1b1b2a1b (ISOGG: R1b1b2a1a2) P312

Where are the missing SNPs leading to J1b ?

"A recently published study has used next-gen sequencing technology to resequence two Y chromosomes separated by 13 generations and discovered four single-base differences in 10 Mb DNA, suggesting that the Y chromosome euchromatin accumulates around one mutation per generation. Y-SNPs therefore now offer the best resolution of Y haplotypes and promise to distinguish almost every Y chromosome"

"Investigators have laboriously sought Y-SNPs shared by many individuals and have generally
paid little attention to the more numerous rare or individualspecific SNPs. Since there are around 24 million nucleotides in the euchromatic Y-specific section of the chromosome, there are
plenty of opportunities for SNP variation to occur. Next-gen sequencing technology allows entire Y chromosomes to be sequenced, so this vast potential resource can be accessed. Our
study compared two Y chromosomes from the same family separated by 13 generations [3]. These chromosomes were genotyped with the 67 Y-STRs mentioned above, and showed no
Y-STR differences. But sequencing them revealed four Y-SNP differences (Fig. 1). Detecting this small number of differences presented formidable technical challenges and more than 30,000
false positives had to be eliminated, including eight in vitro mutations that had arisen in the cell lines that formed the source of the DNA that was sequenced rather than in vivo within the
individuals. The four true mutations were confirmed by standard capillary sequencing of blood DNA from the same individuals, and three of the four by their presence in other members of the family".

The hare and the tortoise: One small step for four SNPs, one giant leap for SNP-kind
Yali Xue, Chris Tyler-Smith *
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambs CB10 1SA, UK

If there's a new Y DNA SNP per generation approximately, we are going to have a festival of SNPs in the next years. Considering a generation of 30 years, in 900-1000 years of a lineage, we are going to find approx. 30 new Y DNA SNPs, more or less 30 SNPs in each millenium !

The dream of consumption of genetic genealogy ! A complete scan of the Y DNA will reveal the complete genealogy of a person.

domingo, 7 de março de 2010

J1b two clusters - Northern Iranian and Luso-Brazilian

J1b M365 has a very rare Y STR motif. 393=13 390=22, 19=15, 385a=12, 388=16, 458=458,2 YCAIIa =21, YCAIIb = 22. I have found two geographically well defined J1b clusters. There’s the Western Iberian, basically a Portuguese cluster, Old Christian (Cristão Velho), Catholic, J1b cluster found in Portugal, Minho, Azores, Portuguese borders (Galiza, Extremadura) with a regular expansion and presence in Brazil. In the FTDNA J Y DNA Project the Western Iberian cluster is easily recognizable. The other discovered cluster has been the Northern Iranian cluster.

In 2009 Professor Klyosov kindly calculated the TMRCA
001_Portugal 13 22 15 11 12 20 11 16 11 13 11 30
005_Brazil 13 22 16 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 29
007_Belgium 13 22 15 10 11 17 11 15 12 13 11 29
009_Azores 13 22 15 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 29
010_Spain 13 22 15 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 29
012_Brazil 13 22 15 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 29
013_Ferrere 13 22 15 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 30

The J1b cluster of 7 haplotypes should give the following time span to the common ancestor: 1725+/-570 years.

Now I have more markers from the SMGF (Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation). The Iranian haplotypes are concentrated in the Northern Caspian area, Gilaki, Rasht, Astane, Talesh, Rezvanshar, Mazandarani, Tehran, Fars

Gonçalves (Brazilian -SMGF) - 37
Ferrere(Ferreira) 37/33
Abadeh 37/31
Tehran 37/30
Shahroud 37/26

Ferrere(Ferreira) (Portuguese-Reunion-SMGF) - 37
Gonçalves 37/33
Abadeh 37/30
Tehran 37/29
Shahroud 37/26

RCO (Ricardo Costa de Oliveira, Brazilian FTDNA/SMGF) - 28
28/24 Ferrere (Ferreira)
28/22 Gonçalves
28/22 Tehran
28/22 Abadeh
28/20 Shahroud
27/19 Astane

Dominguez – Galicia, Spain, FTDNA/SMGF 28
28/25 Gonçalves
28/25 Ferrere (Ferreira)
28/24 Abadeh
28/23 Tehran
28/22 Shahroud
27/21 Astane
27/19 Rezvanshar

Cordeiro de Melo (Brazilian - SMGF) – 32
25/24 Dominguez
25/20 RCO
32/29 Ferrere (Ferreira)
32/28 Gonçalves
32/26 Tehran

Tehran (SMGF) - 37
37/30 Gonçalves
37/30 Abadeh
37/29 Ferrere (Ferreira)
37/26 Shahroud
36/27 Astane

The Northern Iranian and the Western Iberian clusters are forming a perfect continuum of haplotypes. The Iranian cluster is the older and the most diverse cluster but there’s no distinct DYS maker in the SMGF 37 makers specific to differentiate any of the two distant geographical clusters. I keep the idea that a unique cluster can correspond to a unique historical event linking directly an Iranian speaking population to Western Iberia, the hypothesis of the Alan migration and invasion of Lusitania in 409 AD.

terça-feira, 2 de março de 2010

H1 mtDNA 16262T 16278T HVR1 as a genetic signature of the Portuguese maritime expansion

I have the rare HVR1 16262T 16278T 16519C mtDNA belonging to haplogroup H1

Frequencies of the rare 16262T, 16278T motif in three different databases:

SMGF Brazil 1348/2 (Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina)
FTDNA 430/2 Portugal (Brazil and USA with documented genealogies to the Ribeirinha, Terceira, Açores, Azores)
Terceira Island 18/2, Azores (total) 120/2
Mitochondrial DNA patterns in the Macaronesia islands: Variation within and among archipelagos

In the H1 FGS Project the next close match (without the rare 16262T) is RY9WZ from Valladolid, Spain at the cluster Z1a, but there’s a good distance. So that’s an old Iberian lineage

The 16262T 16278T motif seems to be related to a single woman as a founder colonist in the Terceira Island, Azores. That’s a presumable representative of the first Atlantic embarked European mtDNA in the 15th century and it’s an ethnic and national genetic signature of the old Portuguese Empire. Usually the Portuguese haplotypes are distinctively found clustered only in the Western Iberian Portuguese speaking areas and in the main Colony of Brazil as their big territorial expansion.

The theory of sampling obeys the principle of statistical regularity and the 16262T 16278T mtDNA genetic signature presents specific frequencies and the haplotypes can be analyzed as a more or less regular percentage found in diverse samples from the Azorean and Brazilian populations.

sábado, 13 de fevereiro de 2010

Another European map from deCODEme

Another European map from deCODEme (thanks to Evon)
Autosomal DNA
The flags are the national clusters
I am the Brazilian flag to the left !

segunda-feira, 11 de janeiro de 2010

Brazilian cluster/position at deCODEme II

European local maps.

The first map was made by Evon at DNA Forums. Only two Brazilians there.

The second map is showing the green box of the four Brazilian samples at the same place.

Middle Eastern box with the Brazilian green box outside

European box with the Brazilian green box inside

South West Asian box with the Brazilian green box outside

Brazilian cluster/position at deCODEme

DECODEME world map.

Circles are individuals. On the top the grey colour representing the European populations. Down to the left, , the Middle Eastern populations (purple) and to the bottom, the African populations(light blue). In the right, the Southwestern Asian populations (brown), the Amerindian populations (red), the Eastern Asian (light green)and the Oceanian populations (dark green ).

Old Colonial Brazilian Stock position at deCODEme

Brazil is one of the most diverse societies of the world.

Brazilians can be everywhere at the deCODEme Map of Kinship.
Some Brazilians are clustering in a specific place.
Ethnic Brazilians of Colonial Portuguese origin are the Brazilians of Old Stock origin, families with a documented and registered history of 500 years in the Brazilian Genealogies from Bahia, Pernambuco, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The old Senhoriato Colonial, “Homens Bons”, old Brazilian Nativism, the Bandeirante stock, the Senhores de Engenho stock, a new original population of European and Portuguese origin that conquered and colonized half of South America, a new amalgama, a new composite made mainly of Northern Portuguese origins with distant small Amerindian and African admixture in the Colonial times and other European admixtures in the last 200 years. In Brazil they are also known as Quinhentões (500 hundreds), “Old Colonial White” Brazilians, European Brazilians of Portuguese Colonial origin. The Y DNA of this group is 100% European and the mtDNA has a representative proportion of European, Amerindian and African mtDNA produced by the Colonial experience in Brazil. In terms of Manhood they represent the main force and the main drive of the Portuguese world wide Empire with a very homogeneous ethnic identity coming from the Minho, Portucale, expressed as a very homogeneous national identity and political unity in Brazil. The old real or imaginary notion of one People, one Language, one Church, One State, One King, One Ethno-National Project of conquest and colonization. In Brazil this group has created a new branch of the Portuguese language, the Brazilian Portuguese and a new branch of the Portuguese State, the Estado do Brasil, State of Brazil organized since 1549.
The Old Brazilian Stock is organized in the European box at deCODEme and they form a new type of population in the World box because they are in the European box closer to the already existent European populations, not being part of any of them and being far more distant to the other world populations listed as references. The Colonial Brazilians can be closer to some European groups than other Europeans are closer to other different European groups. The Old Brazilian Stock position is different from the Portuguese and other Iberian groups. The analyzed Colonial Brazilian proportions at 23andMe and deCODEme are different from the Puerto Ricans in the same way that the Puerto Ricans are very distant from the Mexicans, still we need more data from the American continent. Old Brazilian Stock was a product of 600.000 Portuguese men – Homens - that came to Brazil in the Colonial Era (1500-1808). Nowadays more than 40 millions of Y DNA descend from the founder base. Brazilian diversity has also had Amerindians and imported labourers from Africa, Europe and Asia in the last 500 years and the Old Stock Brazilians have mixed with and assimilated every social group in Brazil in the last 500 years. The Brazilian genetic structure is completely different from the United States and from Mexico, for instance because genetics can only be understood by the sociological analysis of the formation of the Brazilian social classes and the local conflicts. The Old Colonial Brazilians organized the State, the economy, the culture and unleashed several wars against Amerindian groups, European Powers and African Maroons in Brazil to keep the giant territorial size of Brazil and to remain the ruling class and a powerful and rich Brazilian Elite in the last 500 years, always absorbing and incorporating other groups as the Brazilian universal class in the entire Brazilian territory and creating the specific Brazilian melting pot. The important Amerindian and African contributions mixed and structured the Old Brazilian Stock position to the East and to the South of the European box, creating a completely new space present in the European box as a result of the Old Stock Colonial Brazilian references tested there. So history, society, identities and genetics can explain the unique Brazilian autosomal positions at the deCODEme World Map of Kinship.

Brazilian circle, a new world population within the European box

Brazilian green box with four Brazilian samples

European box with the Brazilian green box inside

Ricardo Costa de Oliveira