sábado, 24 de julho de 2010

New 23andMe Ancestry Finder

Another fantastic tool, the New 23andMe Ancestry Finder

My results (as released in july of 2010):

Default - starting point
Portugal : 0,4%

All included:

United States 4.3%–8.2%
Portugal 0.6%–1.1%
United Kingdom 0.4%–1.0%
Ireland 0.4%–0.8%
Spain - 0.4%–0.7%
Colombia 0.7%
Poland 0.3%–1.0%
Hungary 0.2%–0.3%
South Africa 0.2%
Netherlands 0.2%
Romania 0.1%–0.3%
Brazil 0.1%–0.3%
Ukraine 0.0%–0.7%
Latvia 0.0%–0.7%
Russia 0.0%–0.5%
Lithuania 0.0%–0.4%
Germany 0.0%-0.4%
Switzerland 0.0%–0.3%
Panama 0.0%-0.3%
Italy 0.0%-0.3%
Indonesia 0.0%-0.3%
France 0.0%-0.3%
Argentina 0.0%-0.3%
Venezuela 0.0%–0.2%
Norway 0.0%-0.2%
Canada 0.0%–0.2%
Peru 0.0%–0.1%
Denmark 0.0%-0.1%
Belarus 0.0%–0.1%
Uruguay 0.0%–0.0%
Ecuador 0.0%–0.0%

11,6cM - 4 United States chr10
9,4cM – 4 United States chr13
9,2cM - 2 Unknown, 2 United States chr14
8,4cM – 1 Argentina, 1 United States, 2 Unknown chr6
8,3cM - 4 Portugal chr21
8,3cM – 1 Portugal, 3 United States chr3
8,3cM – 2 Germany, 1 France, 1 United Kingdom chr22
8,3cM – 2 United States, 2 Canada chr13
7,9cM – 4 Portugal chr1
7,4cM – 4 Ireland chr13
7,1cM – 1 United States, 1Denmark, 2 Unknown chr22
7,0cM – 1 Venezuela, France, 2 Spain chr18
6,9cM – 1 Ireland, 2 Unknown, 1 United States chr5
6,8cM – 4 United States chr2
6,8cM – 2 Lithuania, 1 Russia, 1 Lithuania chr7
6,7cM – 1 Uruguay, 3 Unknown chr21
6,7cM - 4 Romenia chr11
6,6cM - 4 Portugal chr4
6,6cM – 2 United States, Indonesia, Switzerland chr11
6,6cM - 2 Unknown, 2 Russia chr19
6,4cM – 1 Panama, 3 Unknown chr20
6,3cM - 1 United States, 3 Unknown chr1
6,3cM – 1 Lithuania, 3 United States chr5
6,2cM – 4 Netherlands chr1
6,2cM – 4 United States chr20
6,1cM – 4 Portugal chr1
6,1cM – 4 Colombia chr3
6,1cM – 2 Germany, 2 Portugal chr20
6,1cM – 4 Spain chr1
5,7cM - 4 United States chr8
5,6cM – 1 United States, 1 Norway, 2 Italy
5.6cM – 2 Ecuador, 2 United Kingdm chr22
5,6cM – 2 United Kingdom, 2 United States chr8
5,6cM – 3 United States, 1 Unknown chr1
5,5cM – 2 United States, 1 United Kingdom, 1 United States, chr9
5,5cM – 4 South África chr11
5,5cM – 1 Russia, 3 Unknown chr2
5,4cM – 4 United States chr18
5,4cM – 1 United States, 3 Unknown chr22
5,4cM – 4 United States chr12
5,4cM – 4 Poland chr11
5,4cM – 1 Spain, 1 Unknown, 2 Spain chr11
5,3cM – 2 United States, 2 Unknown chr14
5,3cM – 1Unknown, United States, Ireland, United States chr8
5,3cM – 1 Brazil, 1 Unknown, 1 Peru, 1 Unknown chr2
5,2cM – 1 Latvia, 2 Poland, 1 Ukraine chr16
5,2cM – 2 Hungary, 2 United States chr11
5,2cM – 1United States, 1 Unknown, 2 United States chr9
5,2cM – 4 United States chr1
5,1cM – 4 Ireland chr13
5,1cM – 4 United States chr5
5,1cM – 4 Poland chr4
5,1cM – 1 United States, 1 Unknown, 2 United States chr3
5,1cM – 1 Unknown, 3 United States chr1
5,0cM – 4 United States, chr10
5,0cM - 2 Belarus, 1 United Kingdom, 1 Romania chr8
5,0cM – 4 United Kingdom chr2

5cM = 4 grandparents from the same country
Portugal 0.9%
Spain 0.4%
Ireland 0.4%
Poland 0.3%
United Kingdom 0.2%
Romania 0.2%
Netherlands 0.2%
Hungary 0.2%
Colombia 0.2%

Indicated segments declared to be of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

The Origin of the Brazilian Y DNA

The Origin of the Brazilian Y DNA
Alagoas, Brazil Y DNA (STR-SNP) at the YHRD release 34.

I’ve made a comparative analysis of the continental Portuguese Y DNA with the regional Brazilian/Alagoas one.


Analysis of Y chromosome SNPs in Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil (Dalmo de Azevedo:2009), 247 tested

Micro-Phylogeographic and Demographic History of Portuguese Male Lineages (Sandra Beleza:2006), 657 tested

Portugal / Alagoas, Brazil
E (xE3a, E3b1) 0.5% / E(xE1b1a-B ) M96 0.4%
E3a 0.2% / E1b1a M2 4.45%
E3b1 (xE3b1-c) 0.9% / E1b1b1(xE1b1b1a-c) M35 0.4%
E3b1a 4.1% / E1b1b1a M78 5.67%
E3b1b 5.6% / E1b1b1b M81 4.05%
E3b1c M123 1.2% / E1b1b1c1 M34 0.4%
F (xGIJK) 0.2% / #
G 5.5% / G M201 3.64%
I (xI1b2) 6.1% / I(xI2a2) M170 4.86%
I1b2 1.5% / I2a2 M26 1.62%
J (xJ1d,J2) 3.4% / J(xJ2) M304 6.07%
J2 7.0% / J2 M172 7.29%
K2 1.6% / T M70 4.05%
L 0.3% / #
R1a 2.0% / R1a1 M17 0.4%
R1b3 (xR1b3f) 57.7% / R1b1b2 M269 55.47%
R1b3f 2.2% / #
# - Q1a3a M3 0.81%
# - K(xL,P,T) M9 0.4%

The proportion of the Y DNA structure between the two populations (samples) is remarkable, almost a mirror. The differences can be found in the Amerindian Q and the African E1b1a in the Brazilian admixed population.

The proportions are curiously regular because my own J1b haplogroup/haplotype is usually found at 0.5% in any big sampled Portuguese stock tested, that’s the case here, one probable J1b (1 of 247) present in the YHRD/Alagoas samples. 19-15, 390-22, 393-13, 385-12~18, 458-18.2

Other contributions to the Alagoas’ Y DNA stock:

- The Amerindian local population, the Caetés, a Tupi group, antropophagus, man-eater, they ate the first Bishop in Brazil after a shipwreck, Dom Pero Fernandes Sardinha (Évora, 1496- Alagoas, 1556). The source of the surviving Q1a3a-M3

- The Dutch occupation of Alagoas, 1637-1646. The WIC Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie. After several battles and the final siege and defeat of the Dutch WIC Fort Maurice in 1645, thousands of soldiers and mercenaries from the Netherlands, France, Germany, Poland, England, Scotland and Jew traders (several Portuguese Sephardim and some Eastern European Ashkenazim, the first documented in Brazil) fought in Alagoas and were captured. The Inquisition freely released the Alagoas’ Ashkenazis in Europe because only baptized Catholics could be processed). After years of occupation and war some of that WIC DNA was incorporated in the local population ?

- The Quilombo dos Palmares, the biggest African community of escaped slaves in the New World. The fortified African citadel in the mountains of Alagoas resisted for almost a century until the final destruction in 1695. Another possible source of African DNA.

The Brazilian traditional colonial Y DNA is the Portuguese “age of sail” Y DNA and the modern Portuguese Y DNA is more related to the old “rural” Y DNA. I think a more or less homogeneous structure of the Portuguese Y DNA stock was already coalesced around the creation of the first Kingdom of Portugal by the year 1150. The moving frontiers in Western Iberia and in South America were the result of the action of a more or less homogeneous Y DNA set or a common pack of Y DNA conquering and colonizing new lands since then. May be a sort of an old diffused aristocratic-slaver cultural ethos or I don’t know what ? Definitely some of the old Alans, Suebi, Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Moors were still riding in new spaces with the Caravels and the Bandeirantes !

The Quest for Fatherhood

Genetic genealogy is rewriting the World History. The Brazilian slavery was the main reason of existence of Colonial Brazil. The growth of the Brazilian population is one of the biggest demographic world facts in the last hundred years. The Brazilian fertility rate created the last world population reaching the 200 millions people club. Brazil had a relatively small population in the world scale until the 1900’s. The main motor of the Brazilian populational expansion has been the Y DNA of the Medieval First Portuguese Kingdom. The Atlantic seafarers and continental conquerors of Brazil created a new population. Our old empire was the first national state to reach Sub-Saharan Africa connecting again Mankind after 60.000 years of separation. The new continent of America began to be colonized with a new population in 1500. In some Brazilian social groups we can find the perfect distribution of mtDNA in equal shares of a third Amerindian, a third European and a third African. Results are consistent with historical records of the directional mating between Portuguese males and Amerindian or African females. The Portuguese Empire only could do it to survive as a national state and national language with a big world empire. Just comparing Portugal with Scotland and Ireland or with the Basques or Catalans that could not escape the centripetal forces of England and Castille. The slavery and the organization of the Brazilian society can be compared with some posterior models. A comparison of the African DNA and the Black social role in Brazil can be compared with the experiences of the French in Haiti, the British in Dixie, the Boers in Africa and the Spaniards in Cuba. Brazil was by far the biggest importer of Africans to the New World (approx. 40% of the total of 10 millions).

Who are the Black Brazilians in terms of Y DNA?

The Y DNA. Number of declared Black tested people and proportion of European Y DNA:
120/60 – 50% . Source- BBC-Brasil site - Sérgio Pena

Genetic signatures of parental contribution in black and white populations in Brazil. Guerreiro-Junior.
Northeast – 89 - 34%
Southeast – 288 – 43%
South - 55 – 56%

Y-STR diversity and ethnic admixture in White and Mulatto Brazilian population samples. Luzitano Brandão Ferreira.

Mulattoes 50/46 – 93%

So the Brazilian Black and Mulatto population is in a good proportion an extension of the Medieval Portuguese Masculinity and adding the declared White Colonial population Brazil is the “center” of that Y DNA Manhood in genetic numbers. So we can understand a lot of things. I can write later.

Haplotypes and Empires

As I have written before, haplotypes are social facts. By a social fact, Emile Durkheim, one of the fathers of modern sociology, is referring to facts, concepts, relations, expectations that come not from individual realities, but that come from the social group which socializes and structures each of its members. Haplotypes are also political facts. The distribution of haplotypes in a population is a historical process related to social and political facts. How the class structure and the distribution of haplotypes in a society have been formed is a central question. The sociology of Karl Marx can be interesting in terms of the formation of the class structure of a society in economical, political and historical terms. The social, historical and political aspects of the distribution of haplotypes is a condition to understand the spatial distribution of haplotypes.

The world wide distribution of my haplotype can be an example. The small and extremely rare Y DNA J1b M365 was originally found and discovered in Eastern Anatolia and Georgia in 2004. As an “old” Anatolian SNP it has never been reported in South Eastern Europe or in the Balkans. So it seems that the the Turk expansion and the Ottoman Empire just bypassed (and eroded) J1b in that region. The same had happened before when the Mongols swept through Central and Eastern Anatolia. No J1b has never been found in the Levantine region and no J1b has been reported in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Also it seems that there’s absolutely no connection of J1b with Semites. The only private tester publicly reported as J1b in Eastern Turkey is a Zazaki speaker, a Northwestern Iranian language. I have discovered and reported the existence of two J1b clusters in Western Iberia, Portugal and in the Caspian shores of North Iran analyzing my own results from FTDNA and the SMGF, YHRD databases. The two clusters are connected by approximately 1500 years and they can easily be recognized at the Sorenson SMGF database with a quite distinct J1b root haplotype. In some centuries J1b could expand and develop a good demography in order to be a statistical phenomenon, a genetic and social fact, detected at the Portuguese stock population at regular rates close to +/- 0,5% in any collection of Portuguese haplotypes. So the original founder, the Genearch of the Portuguese speaking J1b was apparently a successfull survivor. In the last thousand years the Proto-Portuguese, mainly the Christian population from the Entre-Douro-e-Minho has passed from an almost exterminated Northwestern Iberian Christian “tribe” to being able to build the first world wide maritime Empire into a new thriving Ethno-National State with a new demographic explosion in Brazil. New rich genetic admixtures were made. In spite of the small databases at FTDNA, SMGF and several articles, we can infer from regular sampling that J1b is more present on the frontiers of the old Portuguese Empire than in Continental Portugal. At YHRD J1b is among the most common haplotypes in the Azorean sample. J1b can be found in the SMGF Southern Brazilian haplotypes and even in the tiny Reunion Island, in the Indian Ocean ! No J1b has ever been found in the important and well sampled Hispanic population from the United States, what means that J1b is almost non-existent in Mexico, Texas, California, Puerto Rico, for instance. In the case of the Azores and Colonial Brazil, the Portuguese conquest and colonization was mainly conducted by a kind of “fronteiro”, frontiersman, coming mostly from the Minho, Northern Portugal. The Portuguese frontier against Islam in Northern Iberia was transplanted to South America and to Brazil in a secular (existing or continuing through ages or centuries) process of expansion still raging in the Amazon. There’s probably an explanation to the fact that J1b is found thinly but regularly well spreaded (and well above the Portuguese European continental rates as given by the available data) in the old Portuguese world wide Empire and adjacent regions. The Atlantic was a gate to success because on the other shore of the Ocean everything was bigger and everybody could be richer in comparison with the source regions of the Colonials in Portugal. Perhaps the class position, the social status or the geographic location of some haplotypes in the early years of the formation of the Portuguese population was relevant. It was a movement within the same Empire, within the same religion, language and culture. The social, political and geographic place of J1b and several other different Portuguese haplotypes could be decisive as contributors in the making of the Luso-Brazilian frontier in the last thousand years, what can be a factor to explain the current distribution of this small clade in the world nowadays.

sábado, 3 de julho de 2010

Genealogy is just a Historical SNP trail

Genealogy is just a SNP trail

Let's compare the SNPs leading to J1b and R1b-P312 as july/2010

L15, L16
IJ P123, P124, P125, P126, P127, P129, P130
J 12f2a, 12f2.1, M304, P209, L60, L134
J1 M267, L255
J1b M365

IJK L15, L16
K M9, P128, P131, P132
P 92R7, M45, M74, N12, P27.1, P69, P207, P226, P228, P230, P235, P237, P239, P240, P243, P244, P281, P282, P283, P284, P295
R M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285
R M306
R1,P? (ISOGG: R1,P) M173, P231, P233, P234, P236, P238, P241, P242, P245, P286, P294
R1b M343
R1b1 P25_1, P25_2, P25_3
R1b1b P297
R1b1b1 M73
R1b1b2 M269, L265
R1b1b2a L23, L49
(ISOGG: R1b1b2a1) L51
R1b1b2a1 (ISOGG: R1b1b2a1a,R1b1b2a1a) P310, P311, L11, L52, L151
R1b1b2a1b (ISOGG: R1b1b2a1a2) P312

Where are the missing SNPs leading to J1b ?

"A recently published study has used next-gen sequencing technology to resequence two Y chromosomes separated by 13 generations and discovered four single-base differences in 10 Mb DNA, suggesting that the Y chromosome euchromatin accumulates around one mutation per generation. Y-SNPs therefore now offer the best resolution of Y haplotypes and promise to distinguish almost every Y chromosome"

"Investigators have laboriously sought Y-SNPs shared by many individuals and have generally
paid little attention to the more numerous rare or individualspecific SNPs. Since there are around 24 million nucleotides in the euchromatic Y-specific section of the chromosome, there are
plenty of opportunities for SNP variation to occur. Next-gen sequencing technology allows entire Y chromosomes to be sequenced, so this vast potential resource can be accessed. Our
study compared two Y chromosomes from the same family separated by 13 generations [3]. These chromosomes were genotyped with the 67 Y-STRs mentioned above, and showed no
Y-STR differences. But sequencing them revealed four Y-SNP differences (Fig. 1). Detecting this small number of differences presented formidable technical challenges and more than 30,000
false positives had to be eliminated, including eight in vitro mutations that had arisen in the cell lines that formed the source of the DNA that was sequenced rather than in vivo within the
individuals. The four true mutations were confirmed by standard capillary sequencing of blood DNA from the same individuals, and three of the four by their presence in other members of the family".

The hare and the tortoise: One small step for four SNPs, one giant leap for SNP-kind
Yali Xue, Chris Tyler-Smith *
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambs CB10 1SA, UK

If there's a new Y DNA SNP per generation approximately, we are going to have a festival of SNPs in the next years. Considering a generation of 30 years, in 900-1000 years of a lineage, we are going to find approx. 30 new Y DNA SNPs, more or less 30 SNPs in each millenium !

The dream of consumption of genetic genealogy ! A complete scan of the Y DNA will reveal the complete genealogy of a person.