quarta-feira, 23 de dezembro de 2009

Diodorus Siculus, Medes to the River Don

"Greek historian Diodorus Siculus related that the Scythians had carried Medes to the River Don north of the Caucasus presumably from today's northwestern Iran, this event giving rise to their name Sauromatians. Scythians had occupied Media 653-625 B.C.E. Pliny also suggested Sarmatians descended from Medes".

"The Medes, (Greek Μῆδοι, from an Old Persian Mādai; Middle Persian Māh, Assyrian Mādāyu, modern Med or Medya or مەدئوو مەدیا; New Persian مادها) were an ancient Iranian people[2] who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. This area is known as Media (also Medea; Greek Μηδία, Old Persian "

"It was by these kings that many of the conquered peoples were removed to other homes, and two of these became very great colonies: the one was composed of Assyrians and was removed to the land between Paphlagonia and Pontus, and the other was drawn from Media and planted along the Tanaïs (ancient name for the River Don in Russia), its people receiving the name Sauromatae. 7 Many years later this people became powerful and ravaged a large part of Scythia, and destroying utterly all whom they subdued they turned most of the land into a desert".
Diodorus Siculus Library of History. Book II, 35‑60 (end)
Pliny, Natural History, VI, ch 7, W. H. Jones, transl., Wm. Heinemann, London, 1949-54

segunda-feira, 14 de dezembro de 2009

Balance of the year, 2009

As a balance of the year (2009), I’ve tried to calculate the correlation between my specific haplotype and its overall frequency in terms of the Y DNA structure of the population. I still have absolutely no matches at the FTDNA page, no matches either at the recent ancestral origins page. I only have two J1b 3 -Step Mutations matches at the haplotree matches, one from Portugal and the other from Galicia, Spain. So my haplotype is still extremely rare in the FTDNA database, meaning that it is extremely rare in Western Europe. The two other SNP tested Western Iberian FTDNA J1b haplotypes, one from the Azores, Portugal, and the other from Galicia, Spain are matching each other at 67/64 and I am at a genetic distance of 67/59 from both. As December of 2009 J1b M365 modal haplotype 19-15, 390-22, 393-13, 385a-12, 385b -19or20, 388-16, 458-18.2, YCA21-22

J1b is L136 negative, another proof that some of the most basal clades of J1 are in the Northern areas.

FTDNA (confirmed J1b)
648 Portuguese haplotypes - 2 J1b = 0,3%
Galicia, Spain (close to the Portuguese border) – 1 J1b, no other was found in any FTDNA Hispanic population with several thousands of tested people.

YHRD (presumed J1b – modal haplotype)
Rio de Janeiro – 380 – 1 J1b = 0,2%
Iran – Rasht – Gilaki – 47 – 1 J1b = 2,1 %
Iran – Sari – Mazandarani – 50 – 1 J1b = 2%
Portugal - Azores – 68 – 2 J1b = 2,9%
Turkey (presumed J1b – modal haplotype)
Kahramanmaras – 111 -1 J1b
Kahramanmaras – 109 – 2 J1b (difference from the modal at 390=23)

Population and segregation data on 17 Y-STRs: results of a GEP-ISFG collaborative study (2008)Haplotype 389, 1 presumed J1b modal haplotype in 244 Northern Portuguese haplotypes = 0.4%

SMGF (presumed full J1b – modal haplotype)
619 Brazilian haplotypes – 2 J1b = 0,3%
245 Iranian haplotypes –– 5 J1b = 2,0 %, all from Northern Iran and some from the Caspian shores.
2 Reunion Islands, Portuguese origin – 2 J1b – 2/2= 100%

The Portuguese and Brazilian haplotypes are all matching below the limit of 1500 years
The Portuguese/Brazilian and Iranian haplotypes are all matching above the limit of 1500 years

The radar of temporal distances between the SMGF Northern Iranian J1b haplotypes and the Portuguese-Brazilian haplotypes is pointing to approximately 1500 yearsMy own haplotype is matching the Portuguese/Brazilians SMGF haplotypes at 24/28 (Ferrere/Ferreira) and my last (most distant) Brazilian match and my first closest Iranians haplotypes are at 22/28, meaning by SMGF a calculated 50% Cumulative Probability of 48 generations, 1488 yearsThe rate of J1b haplotypes in the Portuguese Y DNA stock is consistent with 0,2 (± 0,2) % in any sample with more than 500/1000 random individuals.The population of the Roman Conventus Bracaraugustanus (more or less the Entre-Douro-e-Minho region) was described by Plinio as 285.000 in 20.300 km², what can be considered the original base of the modern Portuguese and the Brazilian Y DNA stock. The Suevi and Alan migration would had a social, political and demographic impact on that population. A small group or even only one J1b arriving in Northwestern Iberia 1500 years ago, possibly with the Alan migration (40.000 in Iberia, consisting of several different haplotypes and haplogroups of Iranian speaking tribes from the Caucasian, Caspian and Eastern Anatolian area), should be extremely successful to be a regular genetic Y DNA component of the Portuguese stock after 1500 years. One man or a small group in an approximately population of 285.000 (142.500 Y DNA, the initial ratio would be 1/142.500), but the Suevi and Alans arrived as invaders or Conquistadores in Northwestern Iberia, so a possible high social status could mean a kind of reproductive advantage common in that cases. Afterwards the Islamic invasion brought the almost complete destruction of the urban infrastructure because the cities and the main churches were hit hard and only by the 1050-1090 AD a stable frontier was secured by the Northwestern Iberian Christians in the Douro River. So the ethnogenesis and formation of the Portuguese population and the Portuguese language around the year 1000 AD in-between the Entre-Douro-e-Minho area could be perhaps estimated in 200.000 persons, the lowest demographic point after the most destructive incursions of Al-Mansur in the Northern areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Even an already stable J1b haplotype ratio of 0,2% of the estimated 100.000 Y DNA in the Minho around the year 1000 would mean at least 200 men socially well rooted, established and integrated in that population. In times of total war against the Arabs and Moors and later the expulsion or assimilation of the Jews (some specific J1e clusters and clades can be more associated with the Islamic and Jewish religions, like some P-58 can be more associated probably to Arab and Jewish origins), important dividing moments in the history of different J1 clusters from Western Iberia that depending on the religious and political side would had social disadvantages in face of the military destruction and religious prosecution after the ethnogenesis of the Entre-Douro-e-Minho population and the creation of the Portuguese Christian National State with the conquest of the Portuguese territory to the south of Coimbra and the assimilation of an unknown number of local populations (Mozarab, Muladi, Berber, Arab, Jew, Mudejar). Here the traditions and the memories of a genealogical lineage can help. In terms of conventional genealogy the social status of a lineage in the 16th and 17th centuries as “Old Christian” (“Cristão Velho”) and the Honorific Orders and Catholic Priesthood of the Ancien Régime can bring some information about the religious origins of some families in Iberia. Portugal was the first to sail away to discover new lands and the Atlantic expansion was a platform for the big growth of the Portuguese Y DNA in Brazil, meaning the expansion from the old Entre-Douro-e-Minho basal stock where J1b has been part of the vanguards in the new lands and new frontiers. The Roman Empire and the Caliphate politically connected the fringes of Eastern Anatolia and Western Iberia and a Dailamite mercenary or a trader could had traveled between the two points but at 1500 years all the elements are pointing to the known historically registered and documented trip of the Alans. Somehow the old Alan mentality or weltschauung of distant expansion was present in those first journeys of the odyssey of the sea discoveries of the Caravelas and the land discoveries of the Brazilian Bandeirantes, not to mention the idea of a King as a Knight sometimes disappearing in battlefields like some Portuguese Kings did to return encantados.
Let’s wait more results and data !

We need representative databases (different sets of haplotypes with more than 500 collected haplotypes, so we can apply the statistical sampling theory) and we can try to calculate the genetic distances and the different frequencies. The size of a haplotype in a given population can be a historical testimony of old demographic processes. If we don't find matches there must be a historical and social explanation in the same way that a very frequent haplotype in a population also must be explained in terms of social and political hypothesis. Let's read the databases.