quarta-feira, 23 de dezembro de 2009

Diodorus Siculus, Medes to the River Don

"Greek historian Diodorus Siculus related that the Scythians had carried Medes to the River Don north of the Caucasus presumably from today's northwestern Iran, this event giving rise to their name Sauromatians. Scythians had occupied Media 653-625 B.C.E. Pliny also suggested Sarmatians descended from Medes".

"The Medes, (Greek Μῆδοι, from an Old Persian Mādai; Middle Persian Māh, Assyrian Mādāyu, modern Med or Medya or مەدئوو مەدیا; New Persian مادها) were an ancient Iranian people[2] who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. This area is known as Media (also Medea; Greek Μηδία, Old Persian "

"It was by these kings that many of the conquered peoples were removed to other homes, and two of these became very great colonies: the one was composed of Assyrians and was removed to the land between Paphlagonia and Pontus, and the other was drawn from Media and planted along the Tanaïs (ancient name for the River Don in Russia), its people receiving the name Sauromatae. 7 Many years later this people became powerful and ravaged a large part of Scythia, and destroying utterly all whom they subdued they turned most of the land into a desert".
Diodorus Siculus Library of History. Book II, 35‑60 (end)
Pliny, Natural History, VI, ch 7, W. H. Jones, transl., Wm. Heinemann, London, 1949-54

segunda-feira, 14 de dezembro de 2009

Balance of the year, 2009

As a balance of the year (2009), I’ve tried to calculate the correlation between my specific haplotype and its overall frequency in terms of the Y DNA structure of the population. I still have absolutely no matches at the FTDNA page, no matches either at the recent ancestral origins page. I only have two J1b 3 -Step Mutations matches at the haplotree matches, one from Portugal and the other from Galicia, Spain. So my haplotype is still extremely rare in the FTDNA database, meaning that it is extremely rare in Western Europe. The two other SNP tested Western Iberian FTDNA J1b haplotypes, one from the Azores, Portugal, and the other from Galicia, Spain are matching each other at 67/64 and I am at a genetic distance of 67/59 from both. As December of 2009 J1b M365 modal haplotype 19-15, 390-22, 393-13, 385a-12, 385b -19or20, 388-16, 458-18.2, YCA21-22

J1b is L136 negative, another proof that some of the most basal clades of J1 are in the Northern areas.

FTDNA (confirmed J1b)
648 Portuguese haplotypes - 2 J1b = 0,3%
Galicia, Spain (close to the Portuguese border) – 1 J1b, no other was found in any FTDNA Hispanic population with several thousands of tested people.

YHRD (presumed J1b – modal haplotype)
Rio de Janeiro – 380 – 1 J1b = 0,2%
Iran – Rasht – Gilaki – 47 – 1 J1b = 2,1 %
Iran – Sari – Mazandarani – 50 – 1 J1b = 2%
Portugal - Azores – 68 – 2 J1b = 2,9%
Turkey (presumed J1b – modal haplotype)
Kahramanmaras – 111 -1 J1b
Kahramanmaras – 109 – 2 J1b (difference from the modal at 390=23)

Population and segregation data on 17 Y-STRs: results of a GEP-ISFG collaborative study (2008)Haplotype 389, 1 presumed J1b modal haplotype in 244 Northern Portuguese haplotypes = 0.4%

SMGF (presumed full J1b – modal haplotype)
619 Brazilian haplotypes – 2 J1b = 0,3%
245 Iranian haplotypes –– 5 J1b = 2,0 %, all from Northern Iran and some from the Caspian shores.
2 Reunion Islands, Portuguese origin – 2 J1b – 2/2= 100%

The Portuguese and Brazilian haplotypes are all matching below the limit of 1500 years
The Portuguese/Brazilian and Iranian haplotypes are all matching above the limit of 1500 years

The radar of temporal distances between the SMGF Northern Iranian J1b haplotypes and the Portuguese-Brazilian haplotypes is pointing to approximately 1500 yearsMy own haplotype is matching the Portuguese/Brazilians SMGF haplotypes at 24/28 (Ferrere/Ferreira) and my last (most distant) Brazilian match and my first closest Iranians haplotypes are at 22/28, meaning by SMGF a calculated 50% Cumulative Probability of 48 generations, 1488 yearsThe rate of J1b haplotypes in the Portuguese Y DNA stock is consistent with 0,2 (± 0,2) % in any sample with more than 500/1000 random individuals.The population of the Roman Conventus Bracaraugustanus (more or less the Entre-Douro-e-Minho region) was described by Plinio as 285.000 in 20.300 km², what can be considered the original base of the modern Portuguese and the Brazilian Y DNA stock. The Suevi and Alan migration would had a social, political and demographic impact on that population. A small group or even only one J1b arriving in Northwestern Iberia 1500 years ago, possibly with the Alan migration (40.000 in Iberia, consisting of several different haplotypes and haplogroups of Iranian speaking tribes from the Caucasian, Caspian and Eastern Anatolian area), should be extremely successful to be a regular genetic Y DNA component of the Portuguese stock after 1500 years. One man or a small group in an approximately population of 285.000 (142.500 Y DNA, the initial ratio would be 1/142.500), but the Suevi and Alans arrived as invaders or Conquistadores in Northwestern Iberia, so a possible high social status could mean a kind of reproductive advantage common in that cases. Afterwards the Islamic invasion brought the almost complete destruction of the urban infrastructure because the cities and the main churches were hit hard and only by the 1050-1090 AD a stable frontier was secured by the Northwestern Iberian Christians in the Douro River. So the ethnogenesis and formation of the Portuguese population and the Portuguese language around the year 1000 AD in-between the Entre-Douro-e-Minho area could be perhaps estimated in 200.000 persons, the lowest demographic point after the most destructive incursions of Al-Mansur in the Northern areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Even an already stable J1b haplotype ratio of 0,2% of the estimated 100.000 Y DNA in the Minho around the year 1000 would mean at least 200 men socially well rooted, established and integrated in that population. In times of total war against the Arabs and Moors and later the expulsion or assimilation of the Jews (some specific J1e clusters and clades can be more associated with the Islamic and Jewish religions, like some P-58 can be more associated probably to Arab and Jewish origins), important dividing moments in the history of different J1 clusters from Western Iberia that depending on the religious and political side would had social disadvantages in face of the military destruction and religious prosecution after the ethnogenesis of the Entre-Douro-e-Minho population and the creation of the Portuguese Christian National State with the conquest of the Portuguese territory to the south of Coimbra and the assimilation of an unknown number of local populations (Mozarab, Muladi, Berber, Arab, Jew, Mudejar). Here the traditions and the memories of a genealogical lineage can help. In terms of conventional genealogy the social status of a lineage in the 16th and 17th centuries as “Old Christian” (“Cristão Velho”) and the Honorific Orders and Catholic Priesthood of the Ancien Régime can bring some information about the religious origins of some families in Iberia. Portugal was the first to sail away to discover new lands and the Atlantic expansion was a platform for the big growth of the Portuguese Y DNA in Brazil, meaning the expansion from the old Entre-Douro-e-Minho basal stock where J1b has been part of the vanguards in the new lands and new frontiers. The Roman Empire and the Caliphate politically connected the fringes of Eastern Anatolia and Western Iberia and a Dailamite mercenary or a trader could had traveled between the two points but at 1500 years all the elements are pointing to the known historically registered and documented trip of the Alans. Somehow the old Alan mentality or weltschauung of distant expansion was present in those first journeys of the odyssey of the sea discoveries of the Caravelas and the land discoveries of the Brazilian Bandeirantes, not to mention the idea of a King as a Knight sometimes disappearing in battlefields like some Portuguese Kings did to return encantados.
Let’s wait more results and data !

We need representative databases (different sets of haplotypes with more than 500 collected haplotypes, so we can apply the statistical sampling theory) and we can try to calculate the genetic distances and the different frequencies. The size of a haplotype in a given population can be a historical testimony of old demographic processes. If we don't find matches there must be a historical and social explanation in the same way that a very frequent haplotype in a population also must be explained in terms of social and political hypothesis. Let's read the databases.

domingo, 20 de setembro de 2009

J1 Clan Tree Diagram - J1b among the most basal

J1 Tree Diagram (as designed by the FTDNA J1 Project).

"This diagram of the relationships of 190 J1 haplotypes, from members of this project and of the Arabian J1 project, was created using 52 markers out of the 67-marker set, with 15 of the fastest- mutating markers having been eliminated as unsuitable for phylogenetic purposes. In the future it would be desirable to find a way to incorporate SNP information into the tree creation process. Anyone who can find a way to do this in SplitsTree, please contact the project admin. Clusters are labeled with information known as of 9/6/09".


I am the 73612 haplotype !

domingo, 30 de agosto de 2009

Haplotypes are social beings

Haplotypes are social beings and they are in bands, company of persons, joined, acting, or functioning together; aggregation; party; trooped at regular genetic distances from each other and from other groups.

Genetic Distances (SMGF methodology) of presumed J1b M365 haplotypes
Brazilian/Portuguese-Northern Iranian connection
SMGF Iranian: Tehran, Abadeh, Astane, Shahrood
SMGF Brazilian: Gonçalves, Cordeiro de Melo
SMGF Reunion-Portuguese: Ferrere

Iranian-Tehran presumed J1b haplotype (Y Search FSVWG):
Cordeiro de Melo 26/32 - 50% Cumulative Probability 47 generations – 1457 years
Gonçalves 30/37
Iranian-Abadeh 30/37
Ferrere 29/37
Iranian-Astane 27/36
Iranian-Shahrood 26/37

Iranian-Abadeh presumed J1b haplotype (Y Search XVMBC):
Gonçalves 31/37
Ferrere 30/37
Iranian-Tehran 30/37
Cordeiro de Melo 26/32
Iranian-Astane 28/36
Iranian-Shahrood 29/37

Iranian-Astane presumed J1b haplotype (Y Search 2Y5SH):
Iranian-Shahrood 29/35
Iranian-Abadeh 28/36
Ferrere 27/35
Gonçalves 27/35
Iranian-Tehran 27/36
Cordeiro de Melo 23/30

Iranian-Shahrood presumed J1b haplotype (Y Search 9MS3E):
Iranian-Astane 29/36
Iranian-Abadeh 28/36
Cordeiro de Melo 22/31

FTDNA J1b SNP tested

FTDNA Ricardo Costa de Oliveira Brazil, Barcelos – Portugal (Y Search 2CUZQ):
Dominguez 59/67
Ferrere 24/28
Cordeiro de Melo 20/25
Gonçalves 22/28
Iranian-Tehran 22/28 – 50% Cumulative Probability 48 generations – 1488 years
Iranian-Abadeh 22/28

FTDNA Dominguez – USA, Galicia – Spain (Y Search PRJ9T):
Oliveira FTDNA 59/67
Cordeiro de Melo 24/25
Gonçalves 25/28
Ferrere 25/28
Iranian-Abadeh 24/28
Iranian-Tehran 23/28
Iranian-Shahrood 22/28
Iranian-Astane 21/27

Expected J1b M365 network
Y Search comparisons from Ferrere:
X6P7G Ferrere Reunion Unknown Other – Sorenson

Ferrere to the Western Iberian/Brazilian cluster:

PRJ9T Dominguez Castro, Ourense, Galicia, Spain J1b (tested) Family Tree DNA 32/3
R7SHE Cordeiro de Melo Santana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Unknown Other - Sorenson 28/4
2CUZQ Oliveira Sao Romao de Milhazes, Barcelos, Portugal J1b (tested) Family Tree DNA 32/5
6WQMH Gonçalves Imaruí, Santa Catarina, Brazil Unknown Other - Sorenson 32/4

Ferrere to the Northern Iranian cluster:

2Y5SH SMGF Iranian - Astane Astane, Iran Unknown Other - SMGF 28/7
9MS3E SMGF - Iranian - Shahrood Shahrood , Iran Unknown Other - SMGF 32/8
FSVWG Iranian-Tehran -Iran Unknown Other - SMGF 32/9
XVMBC SMGF Iran - Abadeh Fars Unknown Other - SMGF 32/9

Ferrere to the various mini-haplotypes:

CDYQR HP 406 Brazil Unknown Other 15/3
QFBX9 YHRD - Rasht - Gilaki - Iran Iran Unknown Other - YHRD 15/4
38EUZ Haplótipo 389 Portugal Unknown Other 14/2
K3SMV Sardinha Ilha de São Miguel, Azores Unknown Family Tree DNA 12/1
E9YYJ Cuylaerts TURNHOUT, Belgium J1b (tested) Family Tree DNA 12/6
6URZK YHRD possible M365 - Azores/Rio de Janeiro/Turkey Unknown Other - YHRD 9/1
22RY7 YHRD - Caceres - Spain Caceres, Spain Unknown Other - YHRD 9/3
YTHMV Haplótipo 168 Turkey J1b (tested) Other - Cengiz Cinnioglu 9/4

Ricardo Costa de Oliveira

sábado, 22 de agosto de 2009

Iranian, Portuguese, Brazilian SMGF haplotypes

The Ferrere Family from Reunion is Ferreira, from Lisbon, Portugal. They immigrated to Reunion in the 18th century.

FERRERE, Joachim
Sexe: Masculin Naissance : 11 mars 1726 à Lisbonne, PORTUGAL
Décès : 9 novembre 1787 à St Paul, REUNION, FRANCE
Père: FERRERA, Custadio Di
Mère: SANTOS, Domingas Dos

Famille:Mariage: 2 octobre 1747 à St Paul, REUNION, FRANCE

LAUTRET, Catherine Sexe: Féminin
Naissance : 2 octobre 1722 à St Paul, REUNION, FRANCE
Décès : 26 juin 1786 à St Paul, REUNION, FRANCE
Père: LAUTRET, Francois
Mère: TOUCHARD, Marie


The Alans conquered and settled in parts of Iberia and Lusitania in 409/410. All documented historical sources name the group as Alans.

An original contemporary source, Hydatius Chronicle:


XV. Alani, et Wandali, et Suevi Hispanias ingressi aera CCCCXLVII, alii quarto kalendas, alii tertio idus Octobris memorant die, tertia feria, Honorio VIII et Theodosio Arcadii filio III consulibus

XVII. Subversis memorata plagarum grassatione Hispaniae provinciis, barbari ad pacem ineundam, Domino miserante conversi, sorte ad inhabitandum sibi provinciarum dividunt regiones. Gallaeciam Wandali occupant et Suevi, sitam in extremitate Oceani maris occidua. Alani Lusitaniam et Carthaginiensem provincias, et Wandali cognomine Silingi Baeticam sortiuntur. Hispani per civitates et castella residui a plagis, barbarorum per provincias dominantium se subjiciunt servituti.

XXII. (Olymp. CCXCIX.) Ataulfus a patricio Constantio pulsatus, ut relicta Narbona Hispanias peteret, per quemdam Gothum apud Barcinonam [Ms. Barcelonam] inter familiares fabulas jugulatur. Cui succedens Wallia in regno, cum patricio Constantio pace mox facta, Alanis et Wandalis Silingis, in Lusitania et Baetica sedentibus adversatur.


Hydatius or Idacius (c. 400— c. 469), bishop of Aquae Flaviae in the Roman province of Gallaecia (almost certainly the modern Chaves, Portugal, in the modern district of Vila Real) was the author of a chronicle of his own times that provides us with our best evidence for the history of Hispania in the 5th century.


So the Alans in Western Iberia were one specific group of the Northern Iranian speaking languages related to the Sarmatians, Scythians, Massagetae, all related but with specific histories and locations. A very good book that we can read extracts is "Sources on the Alans: a critical compilation" Agustí Alemany.

Claudius Marius Victor wrote in his poem Alethia about the primitive religion of the Alans making of sacrifices to the spirit’s of one’s ancestors and mentions that swords figured prominently in the religion of the ancient Alans as well
"A History of the Alans in the West", Bernard S. Bachrach

sexta-feira, 21 de agosto de 2009

More Iranian haplotypes at the SMGF database

Three more Iranian J1b possible haplotypes at the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation.

The locations:

Astane, Gilan Province, Northern Iran, close to the Caspian Sea. Y Search - 2X5SH

Shahrood, Semnan Province, Northern Iran, close to the Caspian Sea. Y Search - 9MS3E

Abadeh, Fars with connections with Lahijan, Gilan, also in the North. Y Search - XVMBC

The modal connecting Iranian and Portuguese haplotypes:

The mentioned motif is so rare that absolutely no case was found in the recent paper “Coastal-inland differences in Y chromosomes of the Levant”. Hundreds and hundreds of haplotypes from the Levant and absolutely no J1b modal haplotype was found in that study.
The J1b M365 haplotypes and candidates

domingo, 9 de agosto de 2009

Mexican candidate J1b haplotype

The first Mexican candidate J1b haplotype

Y Search 49S86 with the distinctive Western Iberian J1b haplotype
DYS 19 = 15
DYS 390 = 22
DYS 393 = 13
DYS 385 = 12,19
DYS 458 = 18 (probably 18,2 - no ,2 was tested in the Mexican batch)

n of N - 1 of 163
Geoposition [Population] - Guadalajara, Mexico [Mestizo]
Metapopulation - Admixed
Continent - Latin America

It`s a completely isolated haplotype, no neighbour or any other match in Mexico, what could mean a possible Colonial Portuguese immigrant or a Colonial Spaniard from Galicia or Extremadura with the Western Iberian or Western Alan J1b motif
No other J1b was ever found in the FTDNA Mexican Project with a good number of tests.

Latest J1 Y chromosome tree as 7/aug/2009

The J1 Y chromosome tree has been improved and detailed as a result of the FTDNA WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project:


domingo, 31 de maio de 2009

New J1 SNP - L136

L136 ChrY: 7630823 delT is a new SNP in the J1 tree.

It is going to change the known nomenclature, so M365 can be renamed !


M365+ J1b is ancestral to L136, so M365 is more basal to the J1 founder than the derived forms of P56 and P58, what can be a hint to the origin of J1 M267. If more L136 - (negative) J1's are found in the North, that's the possible location of the birth of the J1* haplogroup.

quarta-feira, 27 de maio de 2009

Abdalan Clan from Eastern Anatolia

Someone has noticed me that a member of the Abdalan clan from Eastern Turkey has tested in IGenea as J1b, M365. They are from Erzincan. The Erzincan valley was the location of the most important pre-Christian shrine in Armenia, dedicated to the Iranian goddess Anahit.
I would like to see the haplotype, but it's the first public report of an old Anatolian clan related to J1b M365+
Mere coincidence or a historical register that Abdalan also has had the "Alan" postfix ?

sábado, 25 de abril de 2009

An Estimate of the J1b Age

An estimate of the J1b cluster’s age according to Professor Anatole Klyosov

Cluster A
001_Portugal 13 22 15 11 12 20 11 16 11 13 11 30
005_Brazil 13 22 16 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 29
007_Belgium 13 22 15 10 11 17 11 15 12 13 11 29
009_Azores 13 22 15 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 29
010_Spain 13 22 15 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 29
012_Brazil 13 22 15 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 29
013_Ferrere 13 22 15 10 12 19 11 16 11 13 11 30

The J1b cluster of 7 haplotypes should give the following time span to the common ancestor: 1725+/-570 years.
This standard deviation was calculated here based on a number of mutations and the margin of error for the mutation rate

Now there’s another complete Iranian haplotype from the SMGF database, so we have 8 haplotypes in that J1b cluster A
SMGF – Iran -13-22-15-10-12-20-11-16-11-13-11-29

Cluster B
Qatar 12 -23-14-10-13-19-16-11-13-11-29-17-14-20-11-22-22-15-10-21
Qatar 12- 23-14-10-13-17-16-11-13-11-31-17-14-20-12-22-22-15-10-20
Qatar 12-23-14-11-13-19-16-11-13-11-30-18-14-20-11-22-22-14-10-21

The tree Qatar haplotypes have a common ancestor 2425+/-840 years ago. Such a margin of error is explained by a poor statistics, only three haplotypes.

Yes, it is possible to make an estimate. These two clusters have the following alleles in the 11 markers they both have (A and B, respectively):

13 22 15 10 12 19 X 16 11 13 11 29
12 23 14 10 13 19 X 16 11 13 11 30

Hence, there are 5 mutations between them. This brings their common ancestor to 5700+/-1000 years ago.

segunda-feira, 20 de abril de 2009

New, completely different Qatari J1b cluster

A Qatari J1b cluster was shown in the new article of Sergio Tofanelli,
"J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human displacements". Supplementary Information. 282 M267* chromosomes from 29 populations typed at 20 YSTRs and 6 SNPs.

Unfortunately they haven't tested the P58 SNP.
Only 3 J1b haplotypes (all in Qatar) were found in this extensive study.

The Qatari J1b cluster is completely different from the previously known J1b STR's.
The genetic distance of the haplotypes among the Qatari J1b cluster is 20/4 and 20/6, what probably means a long established group in that place.
Curiously the Qatari haplotypes are closer to other J1e (P58) and even to some J2 haplotypes than to the already known J1b haplotypes.

If the results are correct J1b M365 is far older and far diverse than I thought and it's impossible to estimate the J1b candidates only analyzing the STR or the haplotypes motifs because the Qatari J1b is completely different from the previously known Eastern Anatolian-Caspian Iranian-Portuguese (Alan ?) J1b cluster original motif.

J1b Qatari haplotypes

J1b Eastern Anatolian-Caspian Iranian-Portuguese haplotypes and candidates:

terça-feira, 17 de março de 2009

First Iranian J1b strong candidate at the SMGF database

The fist Iranian J1b strong candidate at the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation database:


DYS 19 = 15
DYS 390 = 22
DYS 393 = 13
DYS 458. 2
DYS 385 = 12-20
YCA 21/22

The SMGF J1b candidate haplotypes:

sábado, 7 de março de 2009

Brazilian Ancestry Painting

Ancestry Painting (A.P.) is a new tool of genealogical investigation developed by 23andME

My Ancestry Painting is the product of the Brazilian Genealogy after 500 years of documented lineages, from the Amerindian founders of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Bahia to the bulk of the Portuguese Colonial Elite also admixed with Africans in the Brazilian Ancien Régime following the other mixtures with European Immigrants in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Brazilians with a background in the old Colonial Elite can be considered a New European based Population or a new Portuguese-Western Iberian based population because we don't match exactly with any other European population and we are even more distant from the North African, Middle Eastern, Central Asian, Eastern Asian, African or Siberian populations.

Approximately 60 millions of self-identified "White Brazilians" from a preponderantly Portuguese stock admixed with small proportions of Amerindian (Asian), African and other European genes can be considered the new Brazilian population of Iberian origin. What the Brazilian traditional classic written genealogies knew as the Amerindian forefathers and the most important sociologists like Gilberto Freyre wrote about the African admixture in the Brazilian Slaveholders Masters of the "Casa Grande" can now be genetically determined. That's the Brazilian population that conquered and colonized half of South America and organized the New World biggest flux of Africans across the Atlantic. That's our heritage.

Ricardo Costa de Oliveira A. P.

Location in the general map, I (Ricardo) am the green point in the European Box. Black points are 23andMe customers and friends who shared the results with me.

The Northern European zoom

The Southern European zoom

A study of Eastern European nationalities made in an anthropological forum by Vista

Family Inheritance page

Matching a Grandfather and his Grandson

Mendel family at 23andMe.

Now we can try to find relatives not only in the Y DNA and mtDNA lines.
A new page at Facebook - Chromosomes in Common, searching relatives via genetic genealogy !

sexta-feira, 6 de março de 2009

J1 clusters and DYS 385 frequencies

DYS385 is a multi-copy marker, and includes DYS385a and DYS385b
In terms of the YHRD J1 haplotypes and candidates we can infer that:
DYS 385 13,19 is more frequent in the Semitic and Berber populations
DYS 385 12,18 is more frequent in the Caucasian populations

DYS 385 13,19

19 of 155 Sfax, Tunisia [Tunisian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
18 of 61 Marche, Italy [Tunisian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Europe
14 of 100 Damascus, Syria [Syrian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Asia
13 of 126 Kuwait [Kuwaiti] Afroeurasian - Semitic Asia
10 of 44 Figuig, Morocco [Arab] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
9 of 130 Rabat, Morocco [Arabs] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
9 of 102 Oran, Algeria [Arab] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
8 of 54 Tunis, Tunisia [Tunisian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
6 of 61 Marche, Italy [Moroccan] Afroeurasian - Semitic Europe
6 of 52 Sohag, Upper Egypt [Egyptian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
6 of 52 Qena, Upper Egypt [Egyptian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
5 of 70 Assiut, Upper Egypt [Egyptian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
4 of 113 Syria [Syrian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Asia
4 of 132 Tunisia [Andalusian Arab] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
3 of 47 Ahvaz, Iran [Arab] Afroeurasian - Semitic Asia
2 of 102 Adana, Southern Turkey [Eti] Afroeurasian - Semitic Asia
2 of 63 Tripolis, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya [Libyan] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
2 of 173 Ethiopia [Amharic] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
2 of 83 Egypt [Egyptian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
1 of 23 El Minia, Upper Egypt [Egyptian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa

10 of 69 Rabat, Morocco [Berber] Afroeurasian - Berber Africa
5 of 52 Figuig, Morocco [Berber] Afroeurasian - Berber Africa
4 of 109 Belgium [Moroccan Berber] Afroeurasian - Berber Europe

This particular haplotype is found from Egypt to Morocco, a perfect match in 17 markers !
n 19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385 438 439 437 448 456 458 635 ygatah4
15 14 13 30 23 11 11 12 13,19 10 11 14 20 14 18.2 21 11 >>

7 of 61 Marche, Italy [Tunisian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Europe
3 of 61 Marche, Italy [Moroccan] Afroeurasian - Semitic Europe
3 of 102 Oran, Algeria [Arab] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
1 of 44 Figuig, Morocco [Arab] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
1 of 70 Assiut, Upper Egypt [Egyptian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa

DYS 385 12,18 in Caucasian Populations

12 of 26 Dagestan, Russian Federation [Dargin] Eurasian - Caucasian Asia
5 of 22 Dagestan, Russian Federation [Rutuls] Eurasian - Caucasian Asia
1 of 72 Azerbaijan [Azerbaijani] Eurasian - Caucasian Asia

DYS 385 12,18 in Semitic Populations

4 of 126 Kuwait [Kuwaiti] Afroeurasian - Semitic Asia
2 of 83 Egypt [Egyptian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
1 of 132 Tunisia [Andalusian Arab] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
1 of 47 Ahvaz, Iran [Arab] Afroeurasian - Semitic Asia
1 of 52 Qena, Upper Egypt [Egyptian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
1 of 173 Ethiopia [Amharic] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
1 of 128 Sanaa, Yemen [Yemeni] Afroeurasian - Semitic Asia
1 of 100 Damascus, Syria [Syrian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Asia
1 of 54 Tunis, Tunisia [Tunisian] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
1 of 102 Oran, Algeria [Arab] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa
1 of 63 Tripolis, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya [Libyan] Afroeurasian - Semitic Africa

DYS 385 13,19 Caucasian Populations

1 14 13 29 23 10 11 12 13,19 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 >>
1 14 14 32 23 10 11 12 13,19 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 >>
1 15 14 28 23 10 10 14 13,19 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 >>
1 15 14 29 23 10 10 14 13,19 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 >>
1 16 12 28 24 10 11 13 13,19 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 >>

1 of 22 Dagestan, Russian Federation [Rutuls] Eurasian - Caucasian Asia
1 of 100 Armenia [Armenian] Eurasian - Caucasian Asia
1 of 77 Georgia [Georgian] Eurasian - Caucasian Asia
1 of 26 Dagestan, Russian Federation [Dargin] Eurasian - Caucasian Asia
1 of 72 Azerbaijan [Azerbaijani] Eurasian - Caucasian Asia

DYS 385 13,15 in J1e “Cohanin”

DYS 385 12,19 and 12,20 are proportionally more frequent among the Western Iberian J1b M365+ haplotypes than in any other cluster.

J1b Cluster Family, M365+ haplotypes and candidates:

Moors and Saracens in Europe

Moors and Saracens in Europe: estimating the medieval North African male legacy in southern
Cristian Capelli et al: 2009
European Journal of Human Genetics (2009), 1 – 5

Table 1 Historically introduced NW African types in Italy and Iberia
Sample n E1b1b1b E1b1b1a J1 Total %
1 Val Badia 34 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 Veneto 55 1.8 0.0 0.0 1.8
3 Central Emilia 62 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 Central-Tuscany 41 0.0 0.0 2.4 2.4
5 Tuscany-Latium border 79 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 North-East Latium 55 1.8 0.0 0.0 1.8
7 Marche 221 0.0 0.5 0.9 1.4
8 South Latium 51 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 East Campania 84 2.4 1.2 1.2 4.8
10 North-West Apulia 46 4.3 0.0 2.2 6.5
11 Lucera 60 1.7 1.7 0.0 3.3
12 West Calabria 56 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
13 South Apulia 71 0.0 0.0 1.4 1.4
Peninsular Italy 915 0.8 0.3 0.7 1.7
14 Sicily 93 2.2 2.2 3.2 7.5
15 Portugal 659 5.0 0.3 1.8 7.1
16 Galicia 292 4.1 0.7 2.1 6.8
17 Cantabria 161 13.0 3.1 2.5 18.6
18 Basques(d) 168 0.6 0.0 0.6 1.2
19 Basques(e) 43 2.3 0.0 0.0 2.3
20 Catalanse 16 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
21 Andalusianse 37 5.4 0.0 0.0 5.4
Total Spain 717 5.2 1.0 1.5 7.7
Total Iberia 1376 5.1 0.7 1.7 7.4

sábado, 28 de fevereiro de 2009

J1b M365 is definitely negative (ancestral) to P58.

I received my 23andMe results. Very interesting !
P58 (J1e) rs34043621 can point to an interesting position in the J1 haplogroup.
In general terms P58, J1e, was an historical edge on the J1 history and J1e P58+ is far more associated to the Semitic groups. J1 with the negative P58 is absolutely not related to the Semitic populations. Probably J1 was born around the Taurus-Zagros line and the oldest and most diversified J1 haplotypes are located in the Anatolian and Caucasian areas, where some of the highest frequencies of J1 in the world are found in places like Daghestan. J1e and the modals found in the Jewish and Arab populations to the South are considerably younger and less diversified.
I am P58- (negative, ancestral, with the TT) what points to the ancient Northern variants of J1 in the J1b clade, just like the known J1 DYS 388=13 cluster.
I am TT positive to L60 rs2008924, definitely another J SNP

domingo, 15 de fevereiro de 2009

A new methodology of estimating ancient or medieval "Invaders" Y DNA in Europe

The recent article “Moors and Saracens in Europe: estimating the medieval North African male legacy in southern Europe” (Capelli et al - European Journal of Human Genetics (2009), 1 – 5) proposes a methodology: “So, considering 9 loci and 40 generations (approximately 1200 years ago with a 31-year generation length14), either 0 or 1 mutational difference is the most likely consequence. Two mutations are only slightly less likely, but overlap with other much more ancient events, for example 80 generations or 2400 years ago. Posterior distributions for more ancient events have probability peaks centred on a higher number of differences, with 0–1 mutations being extremely unlikely (data not shown). Therefore, following this, European Y chromosomes within the three haplogroups identical to, or with one mutational difference from, NW African STR haplotypes were considered compatible with an MNA (medieval Northern African) ancestry. In Iberia and peninsular Italy, they account for 90, 78 and 42% of the E1b1b1b, E1b1b1a-b and J1 chromosomes respectively”.
(9 STR loci - DYS19, DYS389 I–II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DSY393, and the bi-allelic DYS385)

Historically introduced NW African types in Italy and Iberia
Frequencies of E1b1b1b chromosomes with 0-1-steps neighbour chromosome within the NW African dataset.
The database included 127 Berbers from Tunisia; 102 South Tunisians; 109 Moroccan Arab and Berber speakers; 50 Moroccan and 52 Tunisians (unpublished data)

Region – n - %
1 Val Badia 34 - 0.0
2 Veneto 55 - 1.8
3 Central Emilia 62 - 0.0
4 Central-Tuscany 41 - 0.0
5 Tuscany-Latium border 79 - 0.0
6 North-East Latium 55 - 1.8 .
7 Marche 221 - 0.0
8 South Latium 51 - 0.0
9 East Campania 84 - 2.4
10 North-West Apulia 46 - 4.3
11 Lucera 60 - 1.7
12 West Calabria 56 - 0.0
13 South Apulia 71 - 0.0
Peninsular Italy 915 - 0.8
14 Sicily 93 - 2.2
15 Portugal 659 - 5.0
16 Galicia 292 - 4.1
17 Cantabria 161 - 13.0
18 Basques 168 - 0.6
19 Basques 43 - 2.3
20 Catalans 16 - 0.0
21 Andalusians 37 - 5.4
Total Spain 717 - 5.2
Total Iberia 1376 - 5.1

Data not shown in the article but we can use YHRD.
In the case of E1b1b1b M 81+
285 matching haplotypes !

36 of 109
Belgium [Moroccan Berber]
19 of 31
Zriba, Tunisia [Tunisian]
17 of 1177
Antioquia, Colombia [Mestizo]
15 of 792
Central Portugal [Portuguese]
11 of 130
Rabat, Morocco [Arabs]
11 of 102
Oran, Algeria [Arab]
11 of 1237
United States [Hispanic American]
10 of 387
Andalucía/Extremadura, Spain [Spanish]
9 of 654
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European]
9 of 132
Tunisia [Andalusian Arab]
6 of 566
Northern Portugal [Portuguese]
5 of 152
New York City, United States [Hispanic American]
4 of 32
Pennsylvania, United States [Hispanic American]
4 of 255
Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil [European]
4 of 69
Rabat, Morocco [Berber]
4 of 447
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European]
4 of 155
Sfax, Tunisia [Tunisian]
4 of 152
Madrid, Spain [Spanish]
4 of 53
Connecticut, United States [Hispanic American]
4 of 245
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European]
4 of 101
Cantabria, Spain [Spanish]
4 of 311
Peru [Mestizo]
3 of 63
Tripolis, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya [Libyan]
3 of 135
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [African]
3 of 30
Tunisia [Berber]
3 of 61
Marche, Italy [Moroccan]
3 of 365
Mendoza, Argentina [European]
2 of 212
Costa Rica [Mestizo]
2 of 201
Somalia [Somali]
2 of 52
Sohag, Upper Egypt [Egyptian]
2 of 52
Figuig, Morocco [Berber]
2 of 103
Santiago de Compostela, Spain [Spanish]
2 of 74
Texas, United States [Hispanic American]
2 of 314
Sicily, Italy [Italian]
2 of 46
Virginia, United States [Hispanic American]
2 of 95
Nariño, Colombia [Mestizo]
2 of 91
Cauca, Colombia [Mestizo]
2 of 68
Azores, Portugal [Portuguese]
2 of 68
Illinois, United States [Hispanic American]
2 of 224
Barcelona, Spain [Spanish]
2 of 61
Marche, Italy [Tunisian]
2 of 123
Nicaragua [Mestizo]
2 of 224
Rio Negro, Argentina [European]
1 of 46
Zeeland, Netherlands [Dutch]
1 of 113
Belgium [Flemish]
1 of 125
Lyon, France [French]
1 of 120
Zaragoza, Spain [Spanish]
1 of 52
Qena, Upper Egypt [Egyptian]
1 of 91
Majorca, Spain [Spanish]
1 of 62
Caracas, Venezuela [Mestizo]
1 of 324
Chihuahua, Mexico [Mestizo]
1 of 147
Bogotá, Colombia [Mestizo]
1 of 108
Chubut, Argentina [European]
1 of 70
Assiut, Upper Egypt [Egyptian]
1 of 108
Cape Town, South Africa [European Afrikaner]
1 of 34
Cundinamarca, Colombia [Mestizo]
1 of 112
Southern Portugal [Portuguese]
1 of 20
Sciacca, Italy [Italian]
1 of 90
Asturias, Spain [Spanish]
1 of 384
Ravenna, Italy [Italian]
1 of 71
Atlántico, Colombia [Mestizo]
1 of 40
Sao Paulo State, Brazil [African]
1 of 46
Porto Alegre, Brazil [European]
1 of 433
Freiburg, Germany [German]
1 of 1276
United States [African American]
1 of 66
Sao Paulo State, Brazil [European]
1 of 53
Olomouc, Czech Republic [Czech]
1 of 99
Strasbourg, France [French]
1 of 54
Tunis, Tunisia [Tunisian]
1 of 199
Valencia, Spain [Spanish]
1 of 23
Florida, United States [Hispanic American]
1 of 909
Finland [Finnish]
1 of 120
Quito, Ecuador [Mestizo]
1 of 168
Northern Spain [Basque]
1 of 98
Madeira, Portugal [Portuguese]
1 of 42
Oregon, United States [Hispanic American]
1 of 29
Ragusa, Italy [Italian]
1 of 281
Munich, Germany [German]
1 of 243
Rostock, Germany [German]
1 of 134
Pyrenees, Spain [Spanish]
1 of 215
Novi Sad, Serbia [Serbian]
1 of 134
Choco, Colombia [African]

The same methodology can be applied to the YHRD results for the “J1b modal haplotype candidates”, the presumed “Western Alan Modal haplotype”
(9 STR loci - DYS19, DYS389 I–II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DSY393, and the bi-allelic DYS385)

1 of 47 Rasht, Iran, [Gilaki] Eurasian - Indo-Iranian - Asia

Differences with 0-1 mutation in this extremely rare haplotype, one of the smallest clades found in Europe:

2 of 68 Azores, Portugal [Portuguese] Eurasian - European - Western European - European
1 of 135 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [African] African, Afro-American – Latin America
1 of 111 Turkey, Kahramanmaras, Southern Turkey [Romani] Eurasian - Indo Iranian – Asia

1 of 91 Caceres, Spain [Spanish] Eurasian – European – Western European – Europe
A new haplotype found in the YHRD database. Caceres is very close to the Portuguese border and was part of the old Roman Lusitania. (Catálogo Monumental de Caceres - “ocupada por Alanos”).

We can even imagine that the Alans ride from the Caucasus to Lusitania, as an ethos or an attitude, would be resumed after some centuries and would go on over the Atlantic and would continue in the Brazilian wilderness with the Bandeirantes, century by century !
Invaders in Europe, Invaders in America
Entre Conquistadores !